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Unlike the Bible which was written by a great number of people, the
Qur'an was the work of one man. It stands unchallenged as the most
influential Book of one individual person. This is even more remarkable
from a man who could neither read nor write. It is the first work of prose
literature of Arabia and ranks uncontested as the best.
Reading the Qur'an is done much more than reading from any other book
including the Bible since it is used in public worship, in schools, in
individual worship, private study and reading. Because of this fact alone
it is a sufficient claim on our attention. It is the most widely-read Book
in existence. The Qur'an and its Revealer are the foundation of Islam. It
is the sacred Book of hundreds of millions of people who regard it as the
Word of God spoken through the mouth of His Prophet. It affords many
insights into the spiritual development of a most backward people and the
creation of religious personalities (i.e. saints, scholars, poets, etc.).
Westerners often get a first impression of chaotic confusion which can only
be modified by the application of a critical analysis along with a study of
Arabian and Persian tradition. Knowledge of these traditions isunfortunately lacking in western education.
Bahá'u'lláh says, "...the unfailing testimony of God to both the East and
the West is none other than the Qur'an" He summons His followers to,
"Hearken unto that which the Merciful hath revealed in the Qur'an..."
and calls this Book the "mighty Qur'an". Shoghi Effendi says the Qur'an,
apart from the sacred scriptures of the Bábi and Bahá'í Revelations,
constitutes the only Book which can be regarded as an absolutelyauthenticated Repository of the Word of God."
Bahá'u'lláh refers to Muhammad as "God's Well-Beloved" and writes, "If
ye cherish the desire to slay Muhammad, the Apostle of God, seize Me and
put an end to My life, for I am He, and My Self is His Self."
To Bahá'ís Islam is another succeeding step in progressive revelation,Page 2
following Christianity. The Bahá'ís accept without reservation the Divine
origin of Islam, the Prophetic function of Muhammad and the legitimacy of
the institution of the Imamate. Every follower of Bahá'u'lláh recognizes
the exalted position the Prophet Muhammad occupies and would readily give
their life before denying that faith as they would their faith in Jesus
Christ and in Bahá'u'lláh. This is part of the bedrock of Bahá'í belief
which its teachers and scholars are proud to proclaim in public meetings,Bahá'í schools and in Bahá'í literature.
The Qur'an is accepted as authentic by historians and scholars while they
do not accept all of the Gospel text. It is a Book the text of which they
describe as being preserved with unparalleled purity, reverential care and
that it is the genuine and unaltered work of Muhammad.
Regarding the age-long accusations made against Muhammad that He copied
Biblical descriptions, Maurice Bucaille, a French surgeon, who meticulously
examines the Qur'an in the light of modern scientific knowledge, says they
are completely unfounded. This is very clear when data concerning theCreation is considered:
Although not all the questions raised by the descriptions in the Qur'an
have been completely confirmed by scientific data, there is in any case
absolutely no opposition between the data in the Qur'an on the Creation and
modern knowledge on the formation of the Universe....it is very obvious
indeed that the present-day text of the Old Testament provides data on the
same events that are unacceptable from a scientific point of view.... How
could a man living fourteen hundred years ago have made corrections to the
existing description to such an extent that he eliminated scientifically
inaccurate material and, on his own initiative, made statements that
science has been able to verify only in the present day?
The scientific accuracy of the Qur'an is a realization of recent times. It
is this same accuracy that is one of the leading and major proofs of itsauthenticity and divine inspiration.
How could a man, from being illiterate, become the most
important author, in terms of literary merit, in the whole
of Arabic literature? How could he then pronounce truths of
a scientific nature that no other human being could possibly
have developed at the time, and all this without once makingthe slightest error in his pronouncements on the
subject?...it is inconceivable for a human being living in
the Seventh century A.D. to have made statements in the
Qur'an on a great variety of subjects that do not belong to
his period and for them to be in keeping with what was to be
known only centuries later. For me, there can be no humanexplanation to the Qur'an.
These are not vague references to natural phenomenon. The statements in
the Qur'an are in agreement with precise scientific concepts which have
only been discovered in recent times. The source of the constituents of
milk and the role of blood in bringing nutrition to the mammary glands was
not known at the time of Muhammad but is a part of present-day discoveries
in the chemistry and physiology of the digestive system. The discovery of
the circulation of blood was centuries after the writing of the Qur'an. The
water cycle mentioned in the Qur'an did not agree with the concepts current
at the time of Muhammad but it does compare with modern data on hydrology.
It wasn't until 1570 that Bernard Palissy gave a correct interpretation ofthe water cycle.
"What initially strikes the reader...is the sheer abundance of subjects
discussed: the Creation, astronomy, the explanation of certain matters
concerning the earth, and the animal and vegetable kingdoms, human
reproduction. Whereas monumental errors are to be found in the Bible, Icould not find a single error in the Qur'an.
Maurice Bucaille translates surih 51, verse 47 of the Qur'an in this way:
The heaven, We have built it with power. Verily. We are expanding it. He
says that, a 'Heaven' is the translation of the word sama' and this is
exactly the extra-terrestrial world that is meant."Page 4
He also states, "'We are expanding it' is the translation of the plural
present participle musi'una of the verb ausa'a meaning 'to make wider, morespacious, to extend, to expand'."
Some translators who were unable to grasp the meaning of the
latter provide translations that appear to me to be
mistaken, e.g. "we give generously" (R. Blachere). Others
sense the meaning, but are afraid to commit themselves:
Hamidullah in his translation of the Qur'an talks of the
widening of the heavens and space, but he includes a
question mark. Finally, there are those who arm themselves
with authorized scientific opinion in their commentaries and
give the meaning stated here. This is true in the case of
the Muntakab, a book of commentaries edited by the Supreme
Council for Islamic Affairs, Cairo. It refers to the
expansion of the Universe in totally unambiguous terms.
According to Muhammad the substance of the Qur'an is "...uncreated and
eternal; subsisting in the essence of the Deity, and inscribed with a pen
of light on the table of his everlasting decrees. A paper copy, in a volume
of silk and gems, was brought down to the lowest heaven by the angel
Gabriel, who...successively revealed the chapters and verses..." to
Muhammad. It was a period of over twenty years, from age forty to His
passing in 632 A.D. that Muhammad revealed the Qur'an. It was a holy and
profound experience for anyone and anything present. There were times when
the revelation was silent like the ocean when calm and at other times it
was so intense that a vein would swell on His forehead and He would sweat
profusely. There was a time when He was mounted on a camel when the
overpowering effect of revelation forced the animal to its knees. These
were the physical effects of those nearby during revelation. The spiritual
effects of love, of might, of awe and astonishment had powerful effects on
one's being. The experience could not be described in words nor could it be
forgotten. Qur'an means "reading". The verses were dictated by Muhammad and
written down at the moment of revelation or soon after. It was written down
on palm leaves, parchment, leather, shoulder-blades of sheep, bones,camels' scapula,
wooden tablets, "from date leaves, tablets of white stone, and the breasts
of men." The "breasts of men" means the memories of men. There were well
developed memories and memory skills in a society that loved and recitedpoetry so extensively.
No collection of the fragments was made during Muhammad's lifetime. Many
of the qurra or reciters of the Qur'an were killed in battle. These "living
texts" were not being replaced so the task to "search out the Qur'an and
bring it together" was given to Zayd ibn Thabit, the Prophet's chief
amanuensis. Zayd completed the entire Qur'an and several copies were made
from it. Since it contained no vowels it was found that variations had
crept into many copies. The third caliph Uthman had Zayd and three Quraysh
scholars compare all the versions with Zayd's original. Copies of this
official text were sent to Damascus and other cities and those unapproved
versions were destroyed. The official text has remained unquestioned for
almost fourteen centuries. There was never any question as to the accuracy
of Zayd's original manuscript. 'Ali was there along with many who knew it
by heart. Parts of the Qur'an had been in daily use and it was only two or
three years from the passing of Muhammad that Zayd made his first
compilation. 'Ali was very knowledgeable on every aspect of the Qur'an
besides having a clear and retentive memory. He said, "There is not a verse
in the Qur'an of which I do not know the matter, the parties to whom it
refers, and the place and time of its revelation, whether by night or by
day, whether in the plains or upon the mountains." Professor Hamidullah
describes the situation that existed in writing the Qur'an in his Frenchtranslation of the Qur'an (1971):
The sources all agree in stating that whenever a fragment of
the Qur'an was revealed, the Prophet called one of his
literate companions and dictated it to him, indicating at the
same time the exact position of the new fragment in the
fabric of what had already been received...Descriptions note
that Muhammad asked the scribe to reread to him what had beendictated so that he could correct any
deficiencies.....Another famous story tells how every year inthe month of Ramadan, the Prophet
would recite the whole of the Qur'an (so far revealed) to
Gabriel...,that in the Ramadan preceding Muhammad's death,
Gabriel had made him recite it twice...It is known how since
the Prophet's time, Muslims acquired the habit of keeping
vigil during Ramadan, and of reciting the whole of the Qur'an
in addition to the usual prayers expected of them.
The chronological sequence of Revelation was not followed. The 114 surihs
were arranged, with some exceptions, according to their decreasing order of
length. This order of surihs was that order followed by Muhammad when herecited the Qur'an during Ramadan.
Regarding the question of succession, Muhammad did not leave a written
will and testament. The Qur'an does not mention anything regarding who was
to succeed Muhammad. This gave rise to some claims where it was said there
were verses in the Qur'an which pointed to Ali and that these were
suppressed by 'Uthman when he collected and destroyed those unapproved
versions keeping only an official text. "This assertion is manifestly
untenable. There is no indication at all that either 'Ali, or any other of
the Imams, ever contested, by a single word, the authenticity of the text
which 'Uthman adopted." Muhammad did unmistakably appoint His successor
but it was verbal and not written. It is said that Muhammad, returning home
from His last pilgrimage, gathered His followers together and had
specifically and emphatically designated 'Ali. With 'Ali at His side He
said, "Whoever hath Me as his Master, hath 'Ali as his Master... I have
been summoned to the gate of God, and I shall soon depart... to be
concealed from you." He said He would leave two treasures: "The
greatest treasure is the Book of God... Hold fast to it and do not lose it
and do not change it. The other treasure is the line of My
descendants." When Muhammad lay dying He asked for pen and paper to
dictate something that would keep unity among the believers. 'Umar said,
"Pain is deluding Him, We have God's Book, which is enough." "Thesewords were to cause a disastrous
schism in the religion of God that remained irreparable and continuallywidened as the years went on."
It was at the death of the Prophet that one of the greatest turning
points in history took place. 'Ali began to prepare the body of the Prophet
and to make arrangements for burial. 'Ali was left alone to do this while
those who were the closest and most stalwart followers of Muhammad were in
the mosque to choose a successor. These were the same supporters who heard,
with their own ears, the Prophet designate 'Ali as His successor. The
extremely critical error is that they did not decide to follow the words of
Muhammad but instead followed the rules of the tribes. "Heedless of
this event, which is recorded by almost all the chroniclers of the birth of
Islam, many outstanding historians, even those who are Muslims, have
disregarded this critical point, creating so many doubts with their own
interpretations that the mirror of historical fact has become obscured anddarkened."
What do the disconnected letters which preface many surihs of the Qur'anmean?
Bahá'u'lláh says, "In the disconnected letters of the Qur'an the
mysteries of the divine Essence are enshrined, and within their shells the
pearls of His Unity are treasured." He also states, "Outwardly they
signify Muhammad Himself." If anyone knew the meanings of these
disconnected letters they would have no doubt or uncertainty about the
Divinity of Muhammad or the divine origin of His Book. They are,"...the
supreme instrument of guidance for attainment unto the loftiest summits ofknowledge."
Down through the centuries opinions have been divided as to the meaning
of these letters. There has been extensive controversy and effort made to
understand the meaning of these letters but nothing of significance has
been forthcoming. The only thing there has been general agreement on is
that they are mysteries. Believers have had to satisfy themselves that Godwill, in His own time, reveal their meaning.
To the believer and to the serious student of Islam these letters
prefixed to the surihs have profound meanings and he has been certain that
in time these meanings will become known. This is the nature of certitude
and faith. It is one of the ways the intentions of good or evil in the
heart of man come to the surface. To the biased observer they look strange
and for him it is an opportunity for malicious criticism. Some would
foolishly prejudge the situation and say a person would have to be mad or
to be not in his right mind to put letters isolated at the beginning of a
chapter with no apparent reason and no explanation.
This has been an interesting test for man where a mystery has remained
almost completely unsolved until fourteen centuries have passed. Only thenPage 9
solutions and keys to solutions are discovered. It is confirming to man to
have such strong reassurance that every act of a Manifestation of God has
specific purposes. In such a process it is also delightful to know that
there is humor here and that humor is expressed in all the worlds of God.
Let us examine the following chart of the surihs which have
disconnected letters between the first surih and up to and including the
thirteenth. Other surihs have disconnected letters but for the purposes of
this explanation we will go only as far at the thirteenth. We will use the
numerical value of the letters according to the abjad reckoning.
Surih Disconnected AbjadLetters Reckoning
II. Baqara (The Cow). A.L.M. 1 + 30 + 40 = 71
III. Al-i-'Imran A.L.M. 1 + 30 + 40 = 71(The Family of 'Imran).
VII. A'raf (The Heights). A.L.M.S. 1 + 30 + 40 + 90 = 161
X. Yunus (Jonah). A.L.R. 1 + 30 + 200 = 231
XI. Hud (The Prophet Hud). A.L.R. 1 + 30 + 200 = 231
XII. Yusuf (Joseph). A.L.R. 1 + 30 + 200 = 231
XIII. Ra'd (Thunder). A.L.M.R. 1 + 30 + 40 + 200 = 271_____
It is recorded in the hadith that the fifth Imam Muhammad-Baqir said that
each of these surihs with the disconnected letters means a specific period
of time when something will happen to a great, high-ranking, outstanding
person in Islam who is descended from Ban-Hashim.
It was exactly 71 years after Muhammad's Divine Summons that the ImamHusayn was brutally killed.
In another 71 years, exactly 142 years after Muhammad's Divine Summons
Abu'l-'Abbas 'Abdu'llah as-Saffah became Caliph. This ended forever theyoke of the House of Umayyah who
were the persecutors of Muhammad, who usurped the inheritance of His family
and who ruled with treacherous, unscrupulous and murderous tyranny.
Note that these are lunar years. See the computations in footnote thirty.
These years would obviously be from the year of the Divine Summons, the
first intimations of the Holy Spirit personated by the Angel Gabriel, that
moment in time which some historians refer to as Muhammad's "vision" in the
year 610 A.D. Husayn was martyred on the 10th day of Muharram (October, 680
A.D.) this year on the Muslim calendar was 61 A.H. It was as-Saffah who
shattered the power and brought down the rule of the Umayyads in the year
132 of Hijrah (750 A.D.). He was of the House of 'Abbas, a descendant of
Hashim. He condemned the corruption and evil doings of the Umayyads and
said the House of Hashim, the House of the Prophet had come to free
religion and let its light shine and that the earth would be covered with
justice. So 71 years from a most significant happening to Muhammad, Husayn,
a descendant of Hashim, was killed. In another 71 years the oppression of
the House of Umayyah was ended by "a great, outstanding, high rankingdescendant of Bani-Hashim."
Perhaps the most astonishing prophecy hidden in these disconnected
letters is that they reveal the exact year of the appearance of thePromised One of Islam.
Mirza Abu'l-Fadl of Gulpaygan has explained that the disconnected letters
from the first to the thirteenth surihs total 1267. In that year 1260
A.H. (1844 A.D.), a Youth from Bani-Hashim, Siyyid 'Ali-Muhammad, the
Bab[,] made His momentous declaration. Mirza Abu'l-Fadl indicates that this
span of time does not start with the Hijrat but with the declaration of
Muhammad seven years before. Note that this span of time does not start
with Muhammad's Divine Summons or the first year of the Muslim calendar.
The Hijrat is the departure of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina which wasPage 11
established as the first year (622 A.D.) of the Muslim era. It was seven
years before the Hijrat that Muhammad made the public declaration of His
mission to the Quraysh. First this was to the descendants of Hashim,
the House of Hashim, His clan and then at a second gathering to the Meccans
at large. Therefore the period of 1267 years was from the public
declaration of Muhammad to the public declaration of the Báb.
It has been said the 36th Surih of the Qur'an was called by Muhammad "The
Heart of the Qur'an." It concerns the central figure of Islam, His
Revelation and the Hereafter. It is named Ya-Sin from the disconnected
letters at its opening (y and s). Since it makes reference to the Hereafter
it is recited to the dying, read in solemn ceremonies after death and at
the tombs of saints. Here Muhammad foreshadowed the coming of Bahá'u'lláh
as "that of the 'third' Messenger, sent down to 'strengthen' the two whopreceded Him."
Among the Sacred Writings of the Faith there is the Lawh-i-Ayiy-i-Nur
(Tablet of the Verse of Light), also known as Tafsir-i-Hurufat-i-Muqatta'ih
(Interpretation of the Isolated Letters), which was revealed in Arabic andhas not yet been translated into English.
One of the martyrs, Mirza Aqa'y-i-Rikab-Saz asked Bahá'u'lláh to reveal
the significance, inner meanings and reasons for the isolated, broken or
disconnected letters which are found at the beginning of some of the surihsof the Qur'an.
Bahá'u'lláh's Tablet explains in great detail many mysteries which had
remained hidden for thirteen centuries. The only important interpretation
down through the ages was that of the fifth Imam which has been explained
earlier. The light that Bahá'u'lláh puts on this subject and the depth to
which he examines these letters has prompted Adib Taherzadeh to say, "His
explanations are so profound as to overwhelm the imagination."
The Qur'an says that the disconnected letters are ayihs (sometimesspelled
ayats) which is an Arabic word for any revealed verse, sign, symbol or
miracle of the Prophet of God. It says these disconnected letters are the`yihs which make things clear.
The Number Nineteen Examined As a Mathematical Entity
Nineteen is a prime number which is very unusual and interesting. On
one hand it is the sum of the first powers of 9 and 10 (9' + 10' = 19) and
the difference between the second powers of 9 and 10 (10 [squared] - 9[squared] = 100 - 81 = 19).
When you use the multiples of 19 and add their elements to get the
numerical values the result is an interesting pattern from 1 to 9 whichgoes on repeatedly infinitely.
There is a 19 year lunar cycle. Meton, a Greek astronomer, 433 B.C.,
discovered that the phases of the moon recur after nineteen years on the
same day of the month. This 19 year cycle is known as the Metonic
Cycle. There seems to be some possibility that the 19 year cycle of the
moon was known centuries before Meton. At Stonehenge, during the third
major phase of construction about 2000 B.C., thirty stones were erected in
a circle. One of these was smaller than the others which may have meant
that the ring of stones stood for the twenty-nine and a half days of the
lunar month. "Inside the circle, nineteen bluestones were later arranged in
a horseshoe, possibly standing for the nineteen-year cycle of the moon,
after which the moon's phases start to recur on the same days of themonth."
The early Christians wanted Easter to always fall on a Sunday because
they felt it should always fall on a sacred day. The dating of Easter
became a dispute which lasted until the fourth century when the Golden
Number Rule was accepted as the official procedure. The basis for it was
the work of Meton. The date of Easter is determined by dividing the year by
the number 19, discarding the quotient and adding 1 to the remainder.
In the ancient Roman and Alexandrian calendars the Golden Number was marked
in gold. It is from that gold mark that the term Golden Number originated.104
1 is added to 6 making 7 which is the Golden Number. Then you turn to the
table of Golden Numbers and discover that the number 7 gives you April 8.
April 8 is the date of the first full moon which follows March 21, the
beginning of spring in 1982. April 8 falls on Thursday. Therefore Easterfalls on the following Sunday April 11.
Easter falls on the first Sunday after the first full moon after thevernal equinox.
Golden Number Date of the Full Moon1 April 14
Another method which is basically the same is found in the Book of CommonPrayer:
Add one to the Year of our Lord and then divide by 19; the
Remainder, if any, is the Golden Number; but if nothingremaineth, then 19 is the Golden Number.
For the year 1982 you add one year which equals 1983. The remainder 7 isthe Golden Number.
There is a perfect correlation between the Julian (solar) and lunar
calendars. 235 lunar months is equal to exactly 19 Julian years of 365 1/4days.
Another unusual phenomenon is the fact that, "The tide-raising force of
the moon is about 1/9,000,000 that of the earth's gravity, and the tide-
raising force of the sun is only 1/19,000,000 that of earth'sgravity...."
In one of the earliest mathematical documents known there is an algebra
problem which reads, "Aha, its whole, its seventh, it makes 19." It was
discovered in an Egyptian papyrus 3,600 years old and is one of the first
known to have been solved by man. "Aha" means "a heap" or "quantity." Weuse the expression today "Let x equal....":
The papyrus of "Aha" came to the notice of Western scholars a
century ago. Henry Rhind, a tuberculosis-ridden Scottish
antiquary, bought it in 1858 in a shop in the Nile village of
Luxor, where he was wintering for his health. Called the
Rhind Papyrus in his honor, it is one of the earliest
mathematical documents extant--an especially interesting one
because of the evidence it contains that men in 1700 B.C.
were already looking beyond arithmetic into the vistas of
algebra. From the days of the pharaohs on down, the basic
purpose of algebra has remained the same: to permit the
solution of a mathematical problem which involves an unknownnumber. The unknown is expressed by an abstract
symbol which is manipulated until its numerical value can be
established. In order to pin the problem down and hold it
securely while it is being turned around and simplified, the
relationship between known and unknown numbers is set downin an equation--a statement of what equals what.
The venerable Egyptian problem of "Aha, its whole, its
seventh, it makes 19" can readily be transmuted into 20th
Century terms. A hardpressed taxpayer faces the prospect of
filing a declaration of estimated income tax. He knows that
his actual tax will be $1,900. But he decides that if he
slightly underestimates it at the beginning of the year-so
that the balance he will have to make up at the end of the
year does not exceed one seventh of what he has estimated--
the Internal Revenue Service will not make a federal case out
of it. Using the marvelously timesaving shorthand and
rulebook logic of modern algebra, he says to himself: "Let x
equal the number of hundreds of dollars I will declare as my
tax. Then the problem is to find x so that x plus one
seventh of it will equal 19." He expresses the entire
problem as an equation. x + x/7 = 19 ("one seventh of x"
being x/7). Then, almost automatically, he follows the axiom
that equals multiplied by equals remain equal, and he
multiplies both sides of the equation by 7 to arrive at a
new equation, 7x + x = 133. This in turn gives him 8x = 133,
then x = 133/8, and, finally, x = 16 5/8, or, in another
form, 16 5/8 hundreds of dollars--an estimated tax of
$1,662.50. The ancient Egyptians also reached the answer of
16 5/8, although without the symbolic sort of equation we usetoday.
We are primarily interested in the number 19[,] however, many numbershave several unusual qualities about them.
Some scholars have avoided number symbology because of baseless claims
made by certain numerologists, only to discover that it (used properly) is
a valuable tool of learning. As such it takes its place alongside paradox,
symbol, metaphor and other analogical devices, etc. As a teaching device,
"number" was employed both by the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh.
Sometimes not enough attention has been paid to certain "numbers".
Occasionally such an investigation reveals significant meanings. Even then
it may lead nowhere but oftentimes solutions to long-standing perplexingproblems are discovered.
One of the most convincing proofs demonstrating striking evidence of the
divine inspiration of the Qur'an is also the most recent.
Using a computer Dr. Rashad Khalifa presents evidence which demonstrates
that the number 19 occurs too frequently in the Qur'an to be there by
chance. A simple application of the laws of probability is sufficient to
interest and astonish even the most reserved skeptic.
Dr. Khalifa, an Egyptian, received a doctorate in biochemistry in the
United States and taught there for awhile. He published a 60 page booklet
privately in English in the United States in 1972 which was called Number
19: A Numerical Miracle in the Koran. In the January 13, 1980 and
January 20, 1980 issues of the weekly Gulf Times, published in Doha the
capital city of Qatar, articles appeared describing this extraordinarymarvel.
There are 114 surihs in the Qur'an. 114 is 19 x 6, a multiple of 19,
The formula, "In the name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful" is found
over every surih of the Qur'an except the ninth. In this formula there are19 Arabic letters.
This heading has been repeated 113 times at the beginning of the surihs
plus one extra time in the Surih of Naml or the Ants XXVII which adds up to
114 times. 114 is a multiple of 19 (6 x 19). If this heading had not been
repeated one extra time in the Surih of Naml it would not have become amultiple of 19.
From where the heading is missing in surih IX and where it is repeated insurih XXVII there are 19 surihs.
The sacred formula Bismi'llahi'r Rahmani'r-Rahim, which means "In the
name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful," has words in it which are
repeated each a multiple of 19. Its first word, Ism, which means name, isfound 19 times
throughout the Qur'an. The second word, Allah, meaning God, is found 2698
times which is 142 x 19. The third word, al-Rahman meaning most gracious,
appears 57 times which is 19 x 3. The fourth word, al-Rahim meaning mostmerciful, is found 114 times or 6 x 19.
The very first surih (XCVI) revealed to Muhammad is called Iqraa or Read!
or Proclaim! It is also called 'Alaq or The Clot of Congealed Blood. Thisfirst surih has 19 `yihs or verses.
The number of letters in surih XCVI adds up to 285 or 19 x 15.
Regarding the statements in the Qur'an where it says that man was created
from a clot of congealed blood, Maurice Bucaille, the French surgeon, says
this has always been mistranslated. Man has never passed through a stage ofbeing a blood clot. Maurice Bucaille tells us:
"Something which clings" is the translation of the word
'alaq. It is the original meaning of the word. A meaning
derived from it, "blood clot", often figures in translation;
it is a mistake against which one should guard: man has never
passed through the stage of being a "blood clot". The same is
true for another translation of this term, "adhesion" which
is equally inappropriate. The original sense of "something
which clings" corresponds exactly to today's firmlyestablished reality.
When the egg is implanted in the uterus the development of villosities
result. These, like roots, draw nourishment from within the wall of the
uterus. "These formations make the egg literally cling to the uterus. Thisis a discovery of modern times."
Five times the Qur'an describes the act of clinging. This is the wayBucaille translates the following verses:
We have fashioned you from...something which clings.Qur'an 22:5.
We have fashioned the small quantity (of sperm) intosomething which clings.
(God) fashioned you from a small quantity (of sperm),from something which clings.
Was (man) not a small quantity of sperm which has been
poured out? After that he was something which clings;then God fashioned him in due proportion.
The last four of the above five verses describe progressive changes from
the small quantity of sperm to his development as an adult. The description
of these stages is in complete harmony with what we now know about it and
doesn't have a single statement that is not in agreement with science.
There is a statement in the Qur'an that tells us "that the embryo passes
through the stage of 'chewed flesh', then osseous tissue appears and is
clad in flesh (defined by a different word from the preceding whichsignifies 'intact flesh)."
We fashioned the thing which clings into a chewed lump
of flesh and We fashioned the chewed flesh into bonesand We clothed the bones with intact flesh.
Maurice Bucaille explains, "'Chewed flesh' is the translation of the word
mudga; 'intact flesh' is lahm. This distinction needs to be stressed. The
embryo is initially a small mass. At a certain stage in its development, it
looks to the naked eye like chewed flesh. The bone structure develops
inside this mass in what is called the mesenchyma. The bones that are
formed are covered in muscle; the word lahm applies to them."
Verses 1 to 5 of Surih XCVI were the first words of revelation to
Muhammad. All accounts agree that a long interval followed these wordswhere there was no
further revelation. How long this interval was is a matter of speculation.
Some say it was as long as three years while others put it as low as ten
days. The first three years of Muhammad's ministry is very obscure. There
was no public declaration of His mission during this time and only a
handful of followers. The people of Mecca were unaware that God had chosen
someone amongst them to be His Prophet and that He was well known to them.
There was a general feeling of expectancy. "...a prophet was expected, and
women were anxiously hoping for male children, so they might mother the
Apostle of God; and the more thoughtful minds, tinged with traditions of
Judaism, were seeking for what they called the 'religion of Abraham,' Thesemen were 'Hanifs,' or 'incliners'...."
When the Angel Gabriel, the vehicle of Revelation, appeared to Muhammad
on Mount Hirra" , three times the Angel held up a Tablet and told Him to
read. Each time He pleaded He could not read. When the words of revelation
came upon Him He was so overcome He thought He was going mad. At that
moment a clear voice rang out again in the quiet of the mountainside saying
to tell Muhammad that God had chosen Him to be His Messenger to mankind. He
was aware and terrified of the awesome mission to proclaim that God is One.
The first words of the revelation, "Read, in the name of your Lord" are
known to every Muslim. These first words of revelation contain 76 lettersor 19 x 4.
The words of the first revelation (verses 1 to 5 in surih 96) number 19which is 19 x 1.
The words of the second revelation (the first 9 verses of surih 68)number 38 which is 19 x 2.
The words of the third revelation (the first 10 verses of surih 73) number57 which is 19 x 3.
Surih Muddaththir or One Wrapped Up (LXXIV) mentions nineteen appointed
angels and says the choosing of the number 19 is to test unbelievers. It is
in this surih that several reasons are stated for the use of the number 19.Among
these reasons are: So that the People of the Book (i.e. Jews, Christians,
Sabians, Zoroastrians) may know for certain that the Qur'an is a divinely
inspired Book, that the believers increase in faith, to remove doubts and
to show that faith is a gift from God which God puts into the heart of
whomsoever He pleaseth and will "leave to stray whom He pleaseth." Nineteen
as a number by itself is mentioned only once in the Qur'an (Qur'an 74:30).
The Qur'an explains the meaning for other numbers such a seven, twelve,forty, etc., but the number 19 is not defined.
The last of the surihs, the Surih of Nasr or Help CX, which dates to only
a few months before the passing of Muhammad, has a total of 19 words.
Twenty nine surihs in the Qur'an begin with the mysterious disconnected
letters. 14 different letters from the alphabet are used and there are 14
various combinations of these disconnected letters in the beginning of the
surihs (see Appendix 1 and Appendix 2). All these numbers add up to 57 (29
+ 14 + 14 = 57). 57 is 3 x 19, a multiple of 19.
Up to this point the proofs advanced could possibly have been discovered
without the aid of a computer. Now we will examine some very complex
proofs. The Qur'an contains 77,974 words. There are 329,156 letters in the
Qur'an. There has been no change since it was revealed fourteen centuries
ago. Not one letter has been added to the original and not one letter has
been taken away. It has been kept in a state of purity obviously by divine
forces. 329,156 is a multiple of 19 (17,324 x 19).
The Surih of Qaf (surih 50) begins with the disconnected letter "Q" or
"Qaf" from which the surih is named. The letter Q is found in this surih 57
times or 3 x 19. The people who rejected Lut are mentioned twelve times
throughout the Qur'an. They are always referred to as "the people of Lut"
(eleven times) except in the fiftieth surih where they are called "thebrethren of Lut."
People is an Arabic word that has a Q in it. If this change had not been
made Q would have occurred 58 times and the mathematical basis of theQur'an would have been destroyed.
One of the disconnected letters at the beginning of surih 42 is "Q".
There are 57 of these letters in surih 42 which is the same as in surih 50.
Together they total 114 which is a multiple of 19 (19 x 6). Since there are
114 surihs in the Qur'an, "Q" seems to mean Qur'an.
The Surih of Qalam or the Pen (LXVIII) which begins with the disconnected
letter "N", or Nun has 133 "N's" in it. 133 is 7 x 19, amultiple of 19.
The surih of Sad (XXXVIII) begins with the disconnected letter "Sad" or
"S" and this letter is found 29 times in this surih. This is not a multiple
of 19 but when it is added to the S which is one of the disconnected
letters at the beginning of the surih of Maryam (Mary) (XIX) where the
total times it is found is 26 (also not a multiple of 19) and add the total
of times S appears in the Surih of Araf or the Heights (VII) where the
total is 97 (also not a multiple of 19) you get a total of 152 (29 + 26 + +
97 = 152 which is a multiple of 19 or 19 x 8). There are only three times
where this letter is used as a disconnected letter in the Qur'an.
Separately, in the individual surihs where they appear the letters do not
total a multiple of 19. It is only when they are taken together that amultiple of 19 is formed.
There are several other cases of this complex phenomenon. The Surih of
Ya. Sin. is the 36th surih of the Qur'an and is named from the disconnected
letters which are found at its opening verse (Y and S). Y is found in this
surih 237 times and S is found 48 times. Neither 237 or 48 are multiples of
19 but together they add up to 285 which is 19 x 15.
Seven surihs 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45 and 46 begin with the disconnectedPage 25
letters H.M. The number of times H appears in these seven surihs is 292 and
the number of times M appears is 1855. Added together they total 2147 which
is 19 x 113. 292 and 1855 are not multiples of 19 but added together theybecome a multiple.
The same is true for the disconnected letters which appear at thebeginning of the other surihs.
It is true in all 29 surihs which begin with the mysterious disconnected
letters. All of these letters fit precisely this mathematical pattern.
Unknown to millions who have spent endless hours reading, memorizing and
studying the Qur'an is that this revealed Book has a mathematical precision
which has remained unpenetrated for a full millennium and that this
exactitude has not been corrupted by time. In view of the changes
everything experiences, especially language, even over the space of a few
years, it is obvious that this sacred writing has been divinely protected.
Dr. Khalifa tells us that the Qur'an, according to the original, was
written into a General Electric Time-sharing terminal which was connected
to a central computer. It was programmed to count the frequency of
occurrence of each letter in each chapter. Each Arabic letter was given an
English equivalent. An important point to keep in mind is that the original
Qur'anic Arabic was strictly adhered to. Some printings of the Qur'an usethe conventional Arabic which is not identical.
This is one of the most unusual and important discoveries of this
century. We have been given a key that will unlock the door to the
understanding of the mysteries hidden in the Qur'an. It would be an error
to think that these discoveries are an end in themselves. They seem to be a
beginning which will yield explanations to mysteries we are not even awareof at the present time.
First and foremost, the reason for the attention Muhammad calls to the
number 19 is part of His fulfillment of the covenant He made concerning the
Bab, the Promised One who would appear after Him. Every Prophet has made a
covenant with His people that they accept and follow the next Manifestation
who would be the reappearance of His own reality. Muhammad left signs and
evidences everywhere to make it easier for the sincere seeker to recognize
the Báb. In no way has Muhammad fallen short of His duty but the people
have been found to have closed hearts and blind eyes.
There is no evidence that the number 19 has ever been used or figured
prominently or even significantly in any religious system or social order
until the coming of Islam. In Islam it appears as a mysterious number which
has been a source of wonderment to scholars and a cause of speculation to
the mystics. All have failed to come up with convincing arguments for its
appearance in the Qur'an. Not until the coming of the Bábi Faith and the
Bahá'í Faith has convincing reasons for its use in Islam been brought
forward. Its use in the Qur'an is an indisputable proof of the validity of
Islam, the Cause of the Báb and the Cause of Bahá'u'lláh. Such a powerful
proof should remove doubts from any true seeker and bring greater heights
of certitude to the confirmed soul. Its use in the Qur'an is none other
than to point the way to the Promised One. The historical and practical use
in the Bábi Faith and the Bahá'í Faith and its application as one of the
basic mathematical components for the structure of the coming world
civilization is dazzling as one contemplates the far-reaching
transformation that this usage alone will have on human society. This is
true even though we feel its effects only slightly at the present time.Page 27
The Number Nineteen Becomes Manifest in the Bahá'í Faith
Besides being a number which both the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh have employed
to use for practical reasons, the number has been used to help searchers
and believers alike to recognize the Messenger of God for this day. It has
been used in prophecy. It has been used in many ways to conceal meanings
and to reveal extended meanings in certain words and phrases. The use of
the number nineteen in the Bahá'í Faith is so extensive and obvious as to
leave the investigator in awe and astonishment, yet the mysteries contained
within that number are inexhaustible. Some of the ways in which this number
has been and is now in common practical usage in the Faith are:
1. The Bayan (Exposition), the Book of Laws of the Bábi Dispensation,
consists of nine Vahids (Unities) of nineteen chapters each, except thelast which has only ten chapters.
2. Bismi'llahi'r-Rahmani'r-Rahim is the sacred formula placed before
every surih of the Qur'an except the ninth. Some translate this "In the
Name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful" while others translate it," In
the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful." There are nineteenArabic letters in this formula.
The Báb has changed this formula to Bismi'llahi'l-Amna'i'l-Aqdas which
when translated is, "In the Name of God, the Inaccessible, the Sanctified,"
however the number of letters has remained unchanged. These are symbolic of
the nineteen Letters of the Living--eighteen disciples surrounding thenineteenth, the Báb Himself.
For a period of forty days only Mulla Husayn believed in the Báb.
Gradually other Letters were generated from the Primal Point as the BábHimself describes:
Understand in the same way the beginning of the manifestation
of the Bayan: during forty days no one but the letter Sin
believed in B. It was only, little by little, that theBismi'llahu'l-Amna'u'l-Aqdas
clothed themselves with the garment of faith until finally
the Primal Unity was completed. Witness then how it hasincreased until our day.
Shoghi Effendi confirms this when he writes, "Not until forty days had
elapsed, however, did the enrollment of the seventeen remaining Letters ofthe Living commence."
Note that the word for unity ln both Arabic and Persian is vahid and that
the numerical values of the letters of this word add up to 19.
The letter Sin is the first letter to follow the B in Bismi'llah
(remembering that short vowels are not written). The Báb indicates that,
"All that is in the Bayan is synthesized in one of the verses of the
Bayan." He explains that this is the first verse Bismi'llahi'l-
Amna'i'l-Aqdas and says, "All that is in the Bayan is synthesized in one of
the verses, and it is He the B of Bismi'llah and this B is a proof in
itself." The Báb is referring to the point which is beneath the B.
Without that diacritical mark the letter would not exist. In both Arabic
and Persian the B is a straight line with a point under it. The Báb reminds
us of some interesting mathematical facts when He states, All material
letters exist and flow from a point--a line is nothing but a succession of
points;--therefore, the reality of the letters does not exist nor develop
except through the point of Truth. This Point, in the Qur'an, is Muhammad,
in the Bayan, the master of the Seven Letters and in the manifestation
of 'Him whom God Shall Make Manifest,' it is Divine Truth, the Divinebeing...it is the sun of truth."
He also says that, "The Point is like the sun, and the other letters are
like mirrors placed before the resplendent star." Each letter is like a
mirror, several mirrors or in the case of Quddus, mirrors to the number of
eight Vahids revolve." Each mirror reflects the Source of Light and if
you look into any of those mirrors you see the Báb Himself. The First Vahid
is the Primal Unity. These eighteen lesser luminaries, together with theBab, are the First Vahid
(Unity) of the Dispensation of the Bayan. The Báb is the Primal Point from
which have been generated this Primal Unity and,"... from which have been
generated all created things." Expanding on this truth He says,
"Therefore, as words and letters are only made real through the Nuqtih
(Point) also, through Him the realities of human beings will manifest andmultiply."
This is not the first time that this truth has been revealed to man. It
has been known among some of the mystics, the wise and the learned of
Islam. In a well-known tradition, which has been attributed to 'Ali, it is
said that the essence of all religious and spiritual truth of all past
revealed religions is to be found in the Qur'an and that the Qur'an itself
is contained in the first chapter, that this chapter is contained in the
first verse, that this verse is contained in its first letter (B) and that
all that is contained in the B is contained in the point beneath the B.'Ali has said, "I am that Point."
3. There are nineteen invocations in a very special and beautiful prayer
usually said by Muslims of Shi'ah Islam during the period of fasting in the
month of Ramadan. These invoke God through His names. The first of these
invocations revolves around Baha which means Glory. The Badi'' Calendar,
which is the one in use in the Bahá'í Faith, uses these names in the same
order. The Báb has given them to the nineteen months of His calendar.
Each month has nineteen days in it. Bahá'u'lláh gave formal sanction to
this calendar indicating that it should begin in the year of the Báb's
Declaration and since the position of the intercalary days were not
specified He stated where they were to be. One of the traditions of Islam
says that the "Greatest Name of God" is among these nineteen names.
The Asma'u'l-Husna or "Most Beauteous Names" of God are phrases found in
several places in the Qur'an. In hadith literature there is a statement
attributed to Muhammad, "Verily there are 99 names of God, and whoever
recites them shall enter Paradise." Some Islamic scholars have made alist of these
99 names from extensive research in hadith literature. These traditions
also say that God has a hundredth name, the "Most Great Name", and whoever
calls on God by that Name shall obtain all his desires. Many of the
mystics, the wise and the learned have tried and failed to unravel this
mystery. Some have even claimed to possess the Greatest Name but lacking
authority they failed to give the certainty required for such a claim. Only
a Manifestation of God could speak with such authority and solve such an
issue as this. It becomes obvious that this Name could only truly be knownwhen the Mihdi was made manifest.
One of the most interesting stories is that of a perceptive and widely
known scholar who claimed that the "Most Great Name" was Baha and he even
adopted the name Shaykh Baha'i. He was from Lebanon, born in 953 A.H. (1547
A.D.) and went to Persia when he was a young boy. He became the most highlyregarded scholar at the court of Shah 'Abbas.
Bahá'u'lláh confirmed that the "Greatest Name" is Baha. The Báb sent
Bahá'u'lláh a scroll with three hundred and sixty derivatives of the word
Bahá'í written in the form of a pentacle. The various derivatives of the
word Baha in Arabic are also regarded as the "Greatest Name." The "GreatestName" is referred to as Ism-i-A'zam.
4. The Badi'' Calendar, which is used by Bahá'ís throughout the world,
consists of 19 months of 19 days each with four additional intercalary days
(Ayyam-i-Ha) in ordinary and five in leap years. The Báb described this
calendar in the Kitáb-i-Asma'', revealed in Arabic, and stated that this
system was dependent upon the acceptance and good-pleasure of "Him Whom God
shall make manifest." It is based on the solar year.
19 months multiplied by 19 days plus Ayyam-i-Ha equals oneness (361 + 5 =1 year).
The Báb has also divided the years following His Revelation into cycles
of nineteen years. Each cycle of nineteen years is called a vahid. He gaveeach
of these a name which is different from the names He gave to the months.
Nineteen cycles make 361 years which is called a Kull-i-Shay'. As mentioned
before the numerical value of the word vahid is nineteen.
Kull-i-Shay' is an Arabic word whose numerical value is 361 (19 x 19)
according to the abjad system of number value (K = 20, 1 = 30, Sh = 300, a
= 1, y = 10). Kull-i-Shay' means "all things". We are living in the eighthvahid of the first kull-i-Shay'.
5. "...it behooveth man, upon reaching the age of nineteen, to render
thanksgiving for the day of his conception as an embryo. For had the embryo
not existed, how could he have reached his present state?" The Báb
teaches man to be grateful for this gift from God while also, in the text
of the same paragraph, He teaches man to be grateful for former
Revelations. For, "...had the religion taught by Adam not existed, this
Faith would not have attained its present state."
6. The Báb, on pilgrimage to Mecca, purchased and sacrificed nineteen
lambs of the choicest breed. He performed this according to ancient custom.
Nine of these were in His own name, seven in the name of Quddus and three
for His Ethiopian servant. He didn't take any of the meat Himself but gaveit to the poor and needy of the neighborhood.
7. The Báb said that Quddus, "... is the one round whom revolve eight
Vahids...." Shoghi Effendi said Quddus is the one "...whom the Persian
Bayan extolled as that fellow-pilgrim round whom mirrors to the number of
eight Vahids revolve...." Eight Vahids is 152 (8 x 19) a multiple ofnineteen.
8. "The incarceration of Quddus [in Sari]... lasted five and ninetydays," (5 x 19).
9. After the first sortie from the fort of Shaykh Tabarsi"...Quddus bade
his companions dig a moat around the fort as a safeguard against a renewed
attack. Nineteen days elapsed during which they exerted themselves to thePage 32
utmost for the completion of the task they had been charged toperform."
10. After the death of Mulla Husayn, Quddus ordered Mirza Muhammad-Baqir
to lead the fourth sortie: "Sally out and, with the aid of eighteen men
marching at your side, administer a befitting chastisement upon the
aggressor and his host. Let him realize that though Mulla Husayn be no
more, God's invincible power still continues to sustain his companions and
enable them to triumph over the forces of their enemies."
11. At the command of Quddus, "Mirza Muhammad-Baqir again ordered
eighteen of his companions to hurry to their steeds and follow him" (18 + 1
= 19). This was the fifth sortie in the defense of the fort of ShaykhTabarsi.
12. During the period of some of the heaviest defensive action of the
Zanjan conflagration Hujjat gave instructions that the guards of the
barricades were "...to carry out the Báb's injunction to His followers and
to repeat nineteen times, each night, each of the following invocations:
'Allah-u-Akbar,' 'Allah-u-A'zam,' 'Allah-u-Ajmal,' 'Allah-u-Abha,' and 'Allah-u-Athar.'
13. The siege at Zanjan was a long and heroic struggle. After the capture
of the fort by the enemy, the soldiers were bent upon the extermination of
the Bábi defenders. The rest of the companions continued their defensive
actions from houses. "They were divided into five companies, each
consisting of nineteen times nineteen companions. From each of these
companies, nineteen would rush forth together and, raising with one voice
the cry of 'Ya' Sahibu'z-Zaman!' would fling themselves into the midst
of the enemy and would succeed in scattering its forces. The uplifted
voices of these ninety-five companions would alone prove sufficient to
paralyse the efforts, and crush the spirit, of their assailants." 5
companies times 19 companions equals 95. Note that the number 5 is a
reference to the Báb. The numerical values of the letters in His name is
equivalent to 5 in the abjad system of reckoning (b = 2, a = 1, b = 2).
14. Hujjat had endured severe pain, caused by a wound, for nineteen daysPage 33
before he suddenly passed away in the act of prayer invoking the name ofthe Báb.
15. The Báb revealed the Lawh-i-Huru'fat (Tablet of the Letters) which
unravelled the mystery of the Mustaghath and alluded "... to the nineteen
years which must needs elapse between the Declaration of the Báb and thatof Bahá'u'lláh."
16. The Báb had made the command to His followers that once every
nineteen days the eighth Chapter of the sixth Vahid of the Bayan should be
read. This was done so they would not fail to recognize"... the revelationof Him Whom God shall make manifest...."
17. "Be attentive," warns the Báb, "from the inception of the Revelation
till the number of Vahid (19)." Again and even more precisely He
says, "The Lord of the Day of Reckoning will be manifested at the end of
Vahid (19)...." These are unmistakable references to the nineteen
years that must elapse between the public Declaration of the Báb and the
public Declaration of Bahá'u'lláh. It is a reference to the year nineteenof the Badi Calendar.
18. The time between the Declaration of the Báb and the Declaration ofBahá'u'lláh was nineteen years.
19. The "hour" mentioned several times by the Author of the Apocalypse is
nineteen years. There are many meanings to this word. Mirza Asadu'llah-i-
Nur explains that it means the Manifestation Himself, the Declaration of
His Mission, the "time of the end," and the amount of time between the
Declaration of the Báb and the Declaration of Bahá'u'lláh.
20. The Báb in a warning to Vahid states, "Beware, beware, lest in the
days of His Revelation the Vahid of the Bayan (eighteen Letters of the
Living and the Báb) shut thee out as by a veil from Him, inasmuch as thisVahid is but a creature in His sight."
21. Regarding the disconnected letters which appear before many of thePage 34
surihs of the Qur'an Bahá'u'lláh says, "In the disconnected letters of the
Qur'an the mysteries of the divine Essence are enshrined, and within their
shells the pearls of His Unity are treasured." Pay close attention to
the word unity in this statement for in it is disclosed the number 19.
The word vahid means unity in Arabic and Persian and the numerical values
of the letters of this word (v = 6, a = 1, h = 8, d = 4) add up to 19
according to the abjad system of reckoning. Bahá'u'lláh provided the first
clue to a mystery that had remained unsolved for over thirteen centuries.
The word itself signifys unity and symbolizes the unity of God. It is the
name of the number one. When an Arabic speaking person counts he starts outwith vahid which means one.
22. The "Greatest Name" has within it all of the numbers with mystical
significance. Taken as a whole it symbolizes the Glory of God and the Unity
of God. Of the many mysteries surrounding the "Greatest Name" the number
nineteen appears among them, especially with the twin stars as it is used
on the Bahá'í ringstone. Some of these, from the personal view of thiswriter are:
A. 7 + 7 + 5 which equal nineteen. Seven being the number of letters in
the name 'Ali Muhammad when written in Arabic and Persian and seven being
the number of letters in the name Husayn-'Ali. The five is derived from the
pentacle formed from three hundred and sixty derivatives of the word "Baha"
which the Báb had written in His own handwriting, a fine shikastih script,
on a scroll of blue paper and had it delivered to Bahá'u'lláh in
Tihran. The number 5 in this case is the symbol of the Bahá'í Faith
which may, in time, become the dominant symbol of the Faith.Page 35
That it will become dominant is, of course, the personal opinion of this
writer. The five pointed star is the symbol of our Faith as state in a
letter dated 28 October 1949 written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi to an
individual believer, "Strictly speaking the 5-pointed star is the symbol of
our Faith as used by the Báb and explained by Him. But the Guardian does
not feel it is wise or necessary to complicate our explanations of the
Temple by adding this." It does seem inappropriate and confusing in
our explanation of the Temple but very helpful in understanding otheraspects of the Faith.
B. The twin stars (5 + 5) and the word "Baha," the numerical values of
which add up to 9, equal 19. This would fit a personal explanation given by
Hand of the Cause of God Abu'l-Qasim Faizi who asks:
may I venture to suggest another approach to the meaning of
the two stars This approach is merely a personal one
therefore not authoritative. Could we not visualize God as
manifested in His most resplendent glory in the majestic
figure of Bahá'u'lláh, and standing on either side of Him,
two towering personalities of unsurpassed beauty: the Báb the
Herald, the incarnation of sacrifice and of self effacement
and the highest expression of true love ever possible in this
contingent life; and 'Abdu'l-Bahá'í the Center of the
Covenant, the true Exemplar of the teachings and the highest
embodiment of servitude.These two exemplify the mysteries of
sacrifice and servitude, calling on all men to hasten and
offer their potentialities as humble gifts for the
establishment of God's redeeming Order, the very reflectionof His Kingdom on earth.
C. The calculation of the word "Bab" is 5 and "Baha" is 9. Add these
together with the 5 in the star which is the symbol of the Bahá'í Faith andyou get 19.
D. The "Greatest Name" taken as a whole also has the value of one which
stands for unity. Vahid (19) - 1 + 9 = 10 = 1. One has always symbolizedthe unity of God.
E. 'Abdu'l-Bahá comments upon the significance of the inscription on the
Bahá'í ring. He sheds much light upon the meanings of the Greatest Name but
some are very profound. He says, "The inscription is composed of two 'Ba'
and four 'Ha'" and suggests that you refer to the commentary upon
"Bismi'llah, Errahman. Errahim" for a detailed explanation of "Ha". His
explanations touch upon many subjects which will require much study and
research and should be richly rewarding. After overwhelming your
imagination He says, "Briefly, such are the least of the mysteries of the
composition of the Greatest Name upon the stone of the Divine ring."Page 39
Wearing the Bahá'í ring is for ornamentation and for purposes of
identifying oneself as a Baha'i. This is the most general and simplest
reason for its use but there are many other reasons for its use. Wearing of
the "Greatest Name" usually on a pendant or a ringstone or placing it upon
the wall of where one has his home is an outward sign of one's firm bond
with the covenant Bahá'u'lláh has established with the believers. It is apledge of one's loyalty.
It is a sign of from whence he draws his strength. It is a reminder, a
source of protection, a source of spirituality, a visible badge of one's
honor. An announcement that his conduct and deeds are intimately linked to
the One he champions as his Liegelord. It is a declaration of the One to
Whom he bears allegiance and the One to Whom he swears fealty.
23. The triumph of Bahá'u'lláh over the beast and the false prophet
begins in the l9th chapter of the Apocalypse. There are 22 chapters in the
Apocalypse which is also the number of letters in the Hebrew alphabet. That
a book had 22 chapters was a Hebrew practice meaning a book iscomplete.
24. Seven has always been looked upon as a mystic number and symbol. It
is made up of many but yet forms an indivisible integer. It is the highest
indivisible integer of one digit. Seven is used in the Qur'an to some
extent. There are seven heavens, seven gates of hell, and so on:God is He Who Created seven Firmaments
'Abdu'l-Bahá quotes an Islamic source possibly the Qur'an or the Hadith
when He writes, "The seven heavens and the seven earths weep over themighty when he is brought low."
Five is the mystic symbol representing man who stands at the center of
the four elements, the four directions and the four seasons of the year,
which characterize the earthly state. Five, the pentad is the sum of 2 and
3, the first even and odd compound. One is the Creator. One is unity, God
alone without creation. Two is diversity, and three, the sum of 1 and 2, is
the bringing together of unity and diversity which are the two principles
in operation in the universe and which represents the combined powers of
nature. Five represents man and the symbol used is often the star or
pentacle which represents the body of man, with the head, the two arms and
the two legs. Five also represents the five senses through which man
perceives existence. As there are seven heavens and seven earths, man's
external world has fourteen planes. Since he relates to these levels with
five senses the number of stages governing his development and controllinghis conduct may be said to be nineteen.
Man can acquire the "seven virtues" of faith, hope, charity, justice,
fortitude, prudence and temperance or he can fall into the grip of the
"seven deadly" or "capital sins" of pride, wrath, envy, lust, gluttony,
avarice and sloth. We are aware that the virtues and sins are endless,
without number, but there is a profound reason why they have been termed
seven in number. Seven signifies rest or repose in the divine center, "And
God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it, because that in it He had
rested from all his work." In one sense it is the symbol of attainment.
Seven is the stamp of the divine seal upon things of the earth. Six, among
other things, is the symbol of man in that state on the sixth day when he
was created. Beyond six (seven) is that from which all existence comes from
and to which it returns. Man in the process of acquiring virtues follows
the spiritual path which the manifestation for the day in which he is
living points out to him. Man must learn to desire, even yearn, for thislove. He opens his heart and receives the
gift of love and faith. There are risks taken on the path and he could
break laws and fall prey to all manner of sin. Some say it is better not to
set out at all than to awaken the soul, go a certain distance and then
abandon the path because the greater the virtue the greater the danger in
becoming the very embodiment of one or more of the deadly sins. Man in this
state can be described as corruption optimi pessima or the best when
corrupted becomes the worst. This is reminiscent of Alexander Pope's
statement, "The worst of madmen is a saint run mad."
25. There are six verses in the Prayer for the Dead which are to berepeated nineteen times.
26. Each believer is to repeat the "Greatest Name" "Allah-u-Abha'"ninety-five times a day (19 x 5).
27. There is an exemption from offering the Obligatory Prayers granted to
women in their courses provided they perform their ablutions and repeat
"Glorified be God, the Lord of Splendour and Beauty" 95 times a day (19 x5).
28. Every nineteen days, usually on the first day of the Bahá'í month,
the Bahá'ís gather for prayers, consultation and fellowship. These meetings
are called Nineteen Day Feasts because they are held once every nineteen
days. The Nineteen Day Feast, established by Bahá'u'lláh, is the most
sacred of Bahá'í institutions and has been described by the Guardian as the
foundation of the new World Order." "The Nineteen Day Feast was
inaugurated by the Báb and ratified by Bahá'u'lláh...."
29. The period of fasting is for 19 days. There is an exemption from
fasting granted to travellers who break their journey for less than 19
days. If a traveller breaks his journey at a place where they will stay 19
days, he is exempt from fasting only for the first three days. There is an
exemption for women in their courses if they perform their ablutions and
repeat the verse "Glorified be God, the Lord of Splendour and Beauty" 95times a day (19 x 5).
30. The Bahá'í period of engagement must not exceed 95 days (5 x 19).Page 42
31. The marriage dowry is fixed at 19 mithqals of pure gold for
city-dwellers and 19 mithqals of silver for village-dwellers.
You are forbidden to pay more than 95 (5 x 19) mithqals.
Bahá'u'lláh states that He wants the man to content himself with thepayment of 19 mithqals of silver.
32. During a year of patience, which all Bahá'ís must observe if they
wish to divorce, sexual intercourse with one's mate voids the period of
waiting. Intercourse with anyone else is forbidden and "whoever breaks this
law must repent and pay the House of Justice 19 mithqals of gold."
33. "If a person has possessions equal in value to at least 19 mithqals
in gold, it is a spiritual obligation for him to pay 19% of the total
amount, once only, as Huququ'llah (The Right of God)... Thereafter,
whenever his income, after all expenses have been paid, increases the value
of his possessions by the amount of at least 19 mithqals of gold, he is to
pay 19% of this increase, and so on for each further increase."
34. If one is able to do so there is a law requiring the renewal of the
furnishing of one's house after nineteen years.
35. The National Assemblies are elected, "...annually by delegates whose
number has been fixed, according to national requirements, at 9, 19, 95, or171 (9 times 19)..."
36. The number nineteen is found within the architecture of the Baha'i
House of Worship in America along with other numbers significant to the
Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh. "There are 18 steps at each of the nine
entrances of the Temple, which with the completing doorway make 19--and
each door (a 19) becomes a recurring symbol of the Báb himself, because as
we remember, Báb is a title meaning a door between heaven and earth."Page 43
The number eight had a significant part in the building of the Shrine of
the Báb on Mt. Carmel in the Holy Land. In explaining the meaning for the
use of eight in the architecture of the Shrine. Shoghi Effendi recited a
verse of the Qur'an, "...on that day eight shall bear up the throne of thy
Lord." Shoghi Effendi, "...always referred to the Shrine as the
'Throne of the Lord,' and to the Casket of the Báb as the 'Throne.' Even
the Holy Dust was called by Him by the 'Throne.'" Ugo Giachery, Hand
of the Cause of God says, "The eight pinnacles, one at each corner of theoctagon...are indeed original in conception....
Speaking one evening of the importance of the minarets in Islamicarchitecture,
Shoghi Effendi said: 'The mosque of Medina has seven minarets, the one of
Sultan Ahmad in Constantinople has six, but the Qur'an mentions
eight.'[142a] Furthermore, the eight slender minaret-like spires symbolize
the bearers of the 'throne of God.'"[142b] "'Also the Báb is the eighth
Manifestation of those religions whose followers still exist.'" The
use of the number eight is evident in many other details of the Shrine and
in the grounds around it such as the eight doors, the flowerbeds shaped as
eight-pointed stars, etc. Might not the "Angels...on its sides be the
ones for whom the doors of the Shrine of the Báb were named?Page 45
37. Shoghi Effendi selected nineteen from amongst the foremost followers
of Bahá'u'lláh who had passed away and grouped their photographs in an
illustration published in The Bahá'í World, Volume 3. Under the
illustration they have been named, "The Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh" and"Pillars of the Faith".
38. Shoghi Effendi selected nineteen from amongst the foremost servants
of the Faith who had passed away and grouped their photographs in an
illustration published in The Bahá'í World, Volume 3. Under the
illustration they have been named, "The Disciples of 'Abdu'l-Bahá and"Heralds of the Covenant".
39. It was 'Abdu'l-Bahá who conceived the great plan for the development
of Bahá'í properties on Mount Carmel. Using the Shrine of the Báb as the
axis, "The plan called for nine terraces with stairways from the foot of
the mountain to the Shrine, and nine above the Shrine to the mountain-top,
with the Shrine area constituting the nineteenth terrace."Page 46
The list is not exhaustive. It would be more proper to say the list isinexhaustible.
Time, prayer and effort will obviously reveal a wider knowledge and
understanding of the total pattern of all numerical significances and
deeper penetration into the concealed meanings that are yet to astonish themind of man.
The evidence presented here should indicate that every letter of the
Qur'an has been preserved exactly as it was revealed and should leave no
doubt that the Qur'an is a divinely inspired Book which, in turn, should
increase the faith of every believer and enable him to look upon that Book
with a new reverential awareness. It also confirm that the statements in
the Qur'an are in agreement with precise scientific concepts which have
only been discovered in recent times. In addition to this, it shows in an
unsuspecting and ingenuous way that the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh were the Onespromised by Muhammad.
29 letters are found in the Arabic alphabet (hamza and alif are countedas two letters).
Surih XLII has two sets of disconnected letters and is not counted twice.
14 different letters from the Arabic alphabet have been used prefixed to29 surihs. 15 letters have not been used.
These 14 letters have been used in 14 combinations.The 14 various combinations are:
The twenty-nine surihs which have disconnected letters are:2. A.L.M. Alif. Lam. Mim.
The twenty-nine surihs, their disconnected letters and their numericalvalues:
The abjad or numerical values of all the disconnected letters in all thetwenty-nine surihs where they appear total 3385.
This number  added, using either the abjad system or the literary
device called the gematria, equals 1. (3385 = 19 = 9 + 1 = 10 = 1). 3385 isalso a multiple of five (677 X 5).
1. Translation taken from Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'l-Bahá, Bahá'í Scriptures
(New York: Bahá'í Publishing Committee, 1923), p. 567. See also
Bahá'u'lláh, The Kitáb-i-Iqan: The Book of Certitude (Wilmette, Illinois:
Bahá'í Publishing Committee, 1931), p. 140 where the translation is, "Wenoted all things and wrote them down."
2. The spelling of the Oriental words and proper names used in this
article is according to the system of transliteration established at one ofthe International Oriental Congresses.
3. Bahá'u'lláh, The Kitáb-i-Iqan: The Book of Certitude, trans. Shoghi
Effendi (Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Committee, 1931), p. 210.
4. Bahá'u'lláh, Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, trans. Shoghi Effendi
(Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Committee, 1941), p. 82.
5. Bahá'u'lláh, EPistle to the Son of the Wolf, p. 112.
6. Shoghi Effendi, The Advent of Divine Justice (Wilmette, Ill.: Baha'iPublishing Trust, 1971), p. 41.
7. Shoghi Effendi, The World Order of Bahá'u'lláh (Wilmette, Ill.: Baha'iPublishing Trust, 1955), p. 106.
8. Bahá'u'lláh, Gleanings From the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, trans. Shoghi
Effendi (Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1976), p. 101.
9. Maurice Bucaille' The Bible. The Qur'an and Science: "La Bible, le
Coran et la Science', trans. Alastair D. Pannell and the Author
(Indianapolis: American Trust Publications, 1978), p. 148. This work hasalso been translated into Arabic.
13. Edward Gibbon, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire ( New York: The
Modern Library, n.d.), III, 85. This is a most beautiful and poetic story
which helps man in his comprehension and is compatible with Baha'i
teaching. We are aware that paper, silk or anything that decomposes and is
perishable does not exist in worlds beyond the material world and that the
angel Gabriel is the personification of the Holy Spirit. In Christianity it
is symbolized by a dove and in the Bahá'í faith the Holy Spirit is
personified by a Maiden. It is a well known concept in Islam that God
speaks through the mouth of His Prophet. It should be a well known concept
in Christianity on the basis of such clear statements of Christ such as:
'For I spake not from myself but the Father that hath sent me, He hath
given me a commandment, what I should say, and what I should speak "(John
12:49). The power of the Qur'an in the development of man and the creation
of a new civilization can best be understood by the words of Bahá'u'lláh in
what He says about a single letter from God: "Every single letter
proceeding from Our mouth is endowed with such regenerative power as toPage 52
enable it to bring into existence a new creation--a creation the magnitude
of which is inscrutable to all save God. He verily hath knowledge of all
things. It is in Our power, should We wish it, to enable a speck of
floating dust to generate, in less than the twinkling of an eye, suns of
infinite, of unimaginable splendor, to cause a dewdrop to develop into vast
and numberless oceans, to infuse into every letter such a force as to
empower it to unfold all the knowledge of past and future ages (Bahá'u'lláh
quoted in Shoghi Effendi, The World Order of Bahá'u'lláh (Wilmette, Ill.:Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1938
14. Sir William Muir, Life of Mohammed (Edinburgh, 1912), p. 24.
15. Professor Hamidullah quoted by Maurice Bucaille, The Bible, The Qur'an
and Science: La Bible. le Coran et la Science, trans. by Alastair D.
Pannell and the Author (Indianapolis, Indiana: American Trust Publications,1978), pp. 129-30.
16. H. M. Balyuzi, Muhammad and the Course of Islam (Oxford: GeorgeRonald, 1976), p. 221.
17. Marzieh Gail, Six Lessons on Islam (Wilmette, Illinois: Baha'iPublishing Committee, ), p. 29.
20. Abu'l-Qasim Faizi, The Prince of Martyrs: A Brief Account of the ImamHusayn (Oxford: George Ronald, 1977), p. 10-11.
23. They are called the disconnected letters of the Qur'an, the letters
prefixed to the surihs of the Qur'an, the abbreviated letters, and
sometimes just the broken letters. They are often called isolated lettersby Bahá'í translators.
27. Colonel Anaitullah Sohrab, Lessons of Teaching, p. 54. This book
contains lessons from the Bahá'í Summer School in the year 106 B.E. (1950
A.D.) in Isfahan and was published by the Institute of National Baha'i
Prints in 117 B.E. (1961 A.D.). This book was given to this writer by
Parviz Mohebali. It is written in Persian and was translated into English
with the help of Parviz Mohebali and Shoaullah Motamedi.28. Sohrab, p. 52.
30. Sohrab, p. 52. Each lunar year is approximately eleven days shorter
than a solar year. About every 33 years you lose almost a full year. To be
specific one solar year is 365.242 days while one lunar year is 354.367days. One solar year is 1.03069 lunar years.
To convert a date in the Christian solar calendar to the Muslim lunar
equivalent you multiply by 1.03069. Remember the beginning of the Muslimcalendar was in 622 A.D.
To convert the year 1844 A.D. to its approximate equivalent you compute(1844-622) x 1. 03069 - 1259.5 A. H.
To convert the year 680 A.D. in the Christian solar calendar to itsapproximate Muslim lunar equivalent you compute:
To 59.78002 you must add 12 lunar years because this was the span of time
between the beginning of the Muslim calendar (622 A.D.) and the DivineSummons of Muhammad (610 A.D.).
To convert the year 750 A.D. in the Christian solar calendar to itsapproximate Muslim lunar equivalent you compute:
To 131.92832 you must add 12 lunar years because this was the span of
time between the Divine Summons of Muhammad (610 A.D.) and the beginning ofthe Muslim calendar (622 A.D.)
Considering the subtraction of the months in the beginning year and those
of the ending year of each event, the loss of days in 12 lunar years (about
132 days) and the fact that the exact month and day of Muhammad's Divine
Summons is not known and cannot be stated with certainty[,] the computationis likely to equal 142 years.
Also it is not possible to get exact equivalent dates for the earliest
years of the Muslim calendar with the Christian calendar because there
seems to have been some discrepancy between the calendar that was in use in
Medina and the one in Mecca, and because up to 632 A.D. the calendar was
roughly luni-solar. When Muhammad adopted a purely lunar calendar the
confusion ended. Every date after 10 A.H. can be converted to a
corresponding date in any other accurate calendar. Before that time there
are problems to consider and caution is necessary.31. Sohrab, p. 52.
34. Shoghi Effendi, God Passes By (Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í PublishingTrust, 1970), p. 96.
35. Adib Taherzadeh, The Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh: Baghdad 1853-63(Oxford: George Ronald, 1974), pp. 125-26.
36. A prime number is a number that is not divisible, without remainder,
by any number except itself and unity (the number one).
37. Franklyn M. Branley, The Moon: Earth's Natural Satellite, revised ed.
(New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1960), p. 108.
38. Richard Cavendish, Mysteries of the Universe (New York: Galahad Books,1981), p. 28.
41. David Bergamini and the Editors of Life, Mathematics: Life Science
Library (New York: Time Incorporated, 1963), p. 63.Page 54
42. Jeffrey J. W. Baker and Garland E. Allen, A Course in Biology
(Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1979), pp. 95-
96. For example the pattern of nine is very common, probably universal, in
all cell structure. This was discovered in the 1960's when detailed
electron microscope investigations confirmed the existence of microtubulesin the cytoplasm of cells.
The cytoplasm surrounding the nuclear membrane of a cell is like oil
floating on water. It doesn't separate because the microtubules in the
cytoplasm is made of protein which is very tough. Microtubules seem to be
part of the structure of many, perhaps most, cells. They are like a
building frame-work of structural girders. They are found in simple and
complex cell life from one-celled protozoan to human brain cells.Microtubules are long, straight
minute cylindrical structures and are made up of longitudinal fibrils. Theyare more numerous next to the plasma membrane.
The cross section of the Naegleria flagellum of the one-celled protozoan
shows a characteristic 9 + 2 pattern of microtubules.
In a cross section of sperm flagellum of the rat we observe the 9 + 2
pattern of microtubules. The dense outer coarse fibers number 7.
Sometimes the microtubules in cross section have this pattern of nine.Page 56
43. Martin Gardner, "Mathematical Games," Scientific American, September
1980, Volume 243, Number 3, pages 22 and 24. This biographical information
has been taken from this magazine along with some of the computer
information. The first time the computer discoveries were brought to the
attention of the writer of this article, was when he was shown a brief
feature in the Persian section of the French Bahá'í Journal when he was in
Holland. Later, when casually mentioning this to Dr. Gerald Hanks of
Winnipeg, Dr. Hanks called attention to this article in Scientific
American. From correspondence with Martin Gardner regarding some
mathematical problems the writer was able to get Dr. Khalifa's address and
eventually his books so the computer findings could be reviewed andexamined.
Dr. Khalifa has since published his translation of the Qur'an called,
Quran: The Final Scripture (Tucson, Arizona: Islamic Productions, 1981).
He has also written and published, The Computer Speaks: God's Message to
the World (Tucson, Arizona: Renaissance Productions, 1981).Page 57
44. Rashad Khalifa, The Computer Speaks: God's Message to the World
(Tucson, Arizona: Renaissance Productions, 1981), p. 9.
45. The Báb calls attention to this in His Persian Bayan. The Báb changed
this sacred formula but did not change the number of letters it contains.This change will be discussed later.
48. Rashad Khalifa, The Computer, pp. 17-18 and pp. 87-90.49. Rashad Khalifa, The Computer, p. 15.
54. Stanley Lane-Poole, Speeches and Table-Talks of the Prophet Mohammad(London, 1882), pp. 24-25.
61. Rashad Khalifa, Let the World Know: Mathematical Miracle of Quran(Tucson, Arizona: n.p., n.d.), p. 10.
71. It is also used by Muslims at the beginning of many acts such as at
the beginning of meals, undertaking a journey, putting on new garments.
72. Wanden Mathews, La Farge, "The Relation of the Báb to the Traditions
of Islam," in The Bahá'í World: A Biennial International Record, Volume
III, 1928-1930, comp. National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'í of the
United States and Canada (New York: Bahá'í Publishing Committee, 1930), pp.293-99.
73. The Báb, Le Bayan Persan, Vol. 4, p. 119, trans. (into French) A.L.M.
Nicolas, quoted in Emily McBride Perigord', Translation of French Foot-
Notes of the Dawn-Breakers (Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1970,p. 8.
75. The Báb, quoted in La Farge, "The Relation of the Báb to the
Traditions of Islam," p. 296. La Farge translates from A.L.M. Nicolas,
Seyyed 'Ali Mohammed dit le Báb (1905). Nicolas was a distinguished
orientalist and longtime first interpreter of the French legation inPersia. His book is very rare.
78. 'Ali Muhammad has seven letters when written in Arabic and Persian.79. The Báb, quoted in La Farge, p. 297.
80. The Báb, Selections From the Writings of the Báb, trans. Habib
Taherzadeh (Haifa: Bahá'í World Centre, 1976), p. 90.
81. The Báb, quoted by Shoghi Effendi, God Passes By, pp. 8 and 57.82. The Báb, quoted by La Farge, p. 296.
83. Adib Taherzadeh, The Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh: Baghdad 1853-63, p.
34. See also La Farge, p. 296. The quotation from Nicolas is as follows:
"'Ali said: 'All that is in the Qur'an is contained in the first Surah, all
that is in the first Surah is contained in Bismi'llahi'r-Rahmani'r - Rahim,
all that is in Bismi'llahi'r-Rahmani'r - Rahimthe is contained in the B of
Bismi'llah, all that is contained in the B of Bismi'llah is contained in
the point which is beneath the B -- and I am that Point.'" The Shi'ahs
transfer this station to 'Ali after the Prophet's death and to eachsucceeding Imam.
84. Adib Taherzadeh, The Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh: Baghdad 1853-63, p.116.
86. Marzieh Gail, Bahá'í Glossary (Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í PublishingTrust, 1955), p. 9.
87. In this day Bahá'u'lláh has said that the names and attributes of God
are inexhaustible. Man has now reached the stage where he can comprehend
this knowledge far greater than at any time in the past. It is a time when
large masses of humanity are familiar with elementary mathematical conceptssuch as infinity in such problems as:
Some people find it difficult to imagine anything that does not have
limits while others find it difficult to think of anything in terms of
limitations. The reality of inexhaustible names and attributes is an
example of an agreement between science and religion. This knowledge is one
of the most important safeguards Bahá'u'lláh has given to humanity. No
longer will man have to live in fear of his life because he has a differentdegree of understanding from another.
Bahá'u'lláh has promised to remove from religion anything which has been or
will be a source of disunity. This will bring to an end the fearsomeinjustices of the past.
88. Adib Taherzadeh, The Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh: Baghdad 1853-63, p.117.
89. Nabil-i-A'zam (Muhammad-i-Zarandi), "Additional Material Gleaned from
Nabil's Narrative (Vol. II), Regarding the Bahá'í Calendar,' The Baha'i
World: A Biennial International Record, Volume VII, 1936-1938, comp. The
National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada
(Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1939 ), p. 448-51.
90. The Báb, Selections, trans. Habib Taherzadeh, p. 89.
91. The Báb, Selections, trans. Habib Taherzadeh, p. 89.
92. Nabil-i-A'zam (Muhammad-i-Zarandi), The Dawn-Breakers: Nabil's
Narrative of the Early Days of the Bahá'í Revelation, trans. and ed. Shoghi
Effendi (New York: Bahá'í Publishing Committee, 1932), p. 132.
93. The Báb, Selections from the Writings of the Báb, trans. by HabibTaherzadeh, p.90.
105. "Lord of the Age," One of the titles of the promised Qa'im. Qa'im
meaning "He who shall arise "is a title designating the Promised One ofIslam.
109. The Báb quoted by Bahá'u'lláh, Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, p.158.
110. The Báb quoted by Shoghi Effendi, God Passes By, p. 29.
111. The Báb quoted by Shoghi Effendi, God Passes By, p. 29.
112. Mirza Asadu'llah-i-Nur, Sacred Mysteries (Chicago: Bahá'í Supply andPublishing Board, 1902) pp. 16-17.
113. The Báb quoted by Shoghi Effendi, God Passes By, p. 29.114. Bahá'u'lláh, The Kitáb-i-Iqan, p. 202.
115. Shoghi Effendi indicates that the numerical values of this word total
19 in God Passes By, pp. 25 and 29. Marzieh Gail mentions this in Baha'i
Glossary (Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1955), p. 53. See also
Bahá'u'lláh, Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, p. 153.
116. Nabil-i-A'zam, The Dawn-Breakers, p. 505. See also 'Abdu'l-Bahá, A
Traveler's Narrative: Written to Illustrate the Episode of the Báb, trans.
Edward G. Browne, new and corrected edition (Wilmette, Ill.: Baha'i
Publishing Trust, 1980), p. 26. Bahá'u'lláh ordered the most important of
His tablets which were addressed to individual sovereigns to be written in
the form of a pentacle. This symbolized the temple of man. See Shoghi
Effendi, The Promised Day is Come, revised ed. (Wilmette, Ill.: Baha'iPublishing Trust, 1980), p. 47.
117. Shoghi Effendi, Directives from the Guardian (New Delhi: Baha'i
Publishing Trust, n.d.), p. 48. The quotation originally appeared in Baha'iNews, Feb. 1950, p. 4.
118. Abu'l-Qasim Faizi, Explanation of the Symbol of the Greatest Name
(New Delhi: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, n.d.), p. 20.
119. Abdu'l-Bahá, in Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'l-Bahá, Bahá'í Scriptures, p.478.
121. Robert F. Riggs, The Apocalypse Unsealed (New York: PhilosophicalLibrary, 1981), pp. 14 and 224.
122. The Secret of Divine Civilization, trans. Marzieh Gail (Wilmette,Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1957), p. 9.
124. Bahá'u'lláh, Prayers and Meditations by Bahá'u'lláh, trans. Shoghi
Effendi (New York: Bahá'í Publishing Committee, 1938), CLXVII, pp. 260-61.Page 66
125. Bahá'u'lláh, A Synopsis and Codification of the Laws and Ordinances
of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas: The Most Holy Book of Bahá'u'lláh, trans. and
outlined in English with notes in Persian by Shoghi Effendi and completed
by the Universal House of Justice (Haifa: Bahá'í World Centre, 1973), p. 46and 63.
126. Bahá'u'lláh, Synopsis and Codification Kitáb-i-Aqdas, pp. 36 and 37.
127. The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States quoted in Baha'i
Meetings: The Nineteen Day Feast, comp. The Universal House of Justice
(Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1976), pp. 23-24.
128. Shoghi Effendi quoted in Bahá'í Meetings: The Nineteen Day Feast, p.24.
129. Abdu'l-Bahá quoted in Bahá'í Meetings: The Nineteen Day Feast, p. 21.
130. Bahá'u'lláh, Synopsis and Codification Kitáb-i-Aqdas, pp. 38-9 and p.57.
131. 3 1/2 grams. A mithqal is a weight which was designated by the Báb.
132. Bahá'u'lláh, Synopsis and Codification Kitáb-i-Aqdas, p. 40.
133. Bahá'u'lláh, Synopsis and Codification Kitáb-i-Aqdas, p. 40.
134. Bahá'u'lláh, Synopsis and Codification Kitáb-i-Aqdas, p. 40.
135. Bahá'u'lláh, Synopsis and Codification Kitáb-i-Aqdas, p. 42.
136. Bahá'u'lláh, Synopsis and Codification Kitáb-i-Aqdas, p. 60.
137. Bahá'u'lláh, Synopsis and Codification Kitáb-i-Aqdas, pp. 51 and 65.138. Shoghi Effendi, God Passes By, p. 333.
139. Mary Hanford Ford quoted in "The Mashriqu'l-Adhkar: 'The Dawning
Place of God's Praise'", Bahá'í Year Book, Volume I, 1925-1926, comp.
National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada
(Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1926), p. 62.
140. Surih 69, The Inevitable, verse 17, of Rodwell's translation quoted
in Ugo Giachery, Shoghi Effendi: Recollections by Ugo Giachery (Oxford:George Ronald, 1973), p. 83.
141. Ugo Giachery, Shoghi Effendi: Recollections by Ugo Giachery (Oxford:George Ronald, 1973, p. 83.
143. Shoghi Effendi quoted in Ugo Giachery, Recollections, p. 84.144. Qur'an 69:17.