More Books by Compilations

A Compilation of Writings about the Hidden Words
Agriculture and Rural Life
Arts and Architecture
Arts and Crafts
Baha'i Burial
Baha'i Education
Baha'i Elections
Baha'i Meetings
Baha'i Scholarship Statements from the World Centre
Bahá'í Funds and Contributions
Bahá'í Holy Places at the World Centre
Buddha, Krishna, Zoroaster and Related Subjects
Centres of Baha'i Learning
Chaste and Holy Life, A
Compilation on the Arts
Consent of Parents to Marriage, The
Conservation of the Earth's Resources
Crisis and Victory
Criticism extracts from letters written on behalf of the Guardian to individual believers
Cultural Diversity in the Age of Maturity
Days of Remembrance
Defining a Minority for the Purpose of Resolving a Tie for Ninth Place in a Bahá'í Election
Devotional Gatherings, Selected Guidance concerning
Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union
Economics, Agriculture, and Related Subjects
Electronic Communication with Covenant-breakers
Establishment of The Universal House of Justice
Excellence in all Things
Extracts Concerning the Resurrection
Extracts from Four Tablets by Abdu'l-Bahá Concerning the Question of Inheritance
Extracts on the Old and New Testaments
Family Life
Fire and Light Excerpts from the Bahá'í Sacred Writings
Functions and Importance of the Haziratu'l-Quds
Germany, France, Italy, and Switzerland
Give Me Thy Grace to Serve Thy Loved Ones
Guidance Regarding Bahá'í Archives
Guidance to Poets
Guidelines for Teaching
Health, Healing, and Nutrition
Holocaust and the Greater Plan of God, The
Humor and Laughter
Importance of collecting and safeguarding the Bahá'í writings
Importance of Deepening Our Knowledge and Understanding of the Faith
Importance of Obligatory Prayer and Fasting
Importance of Prayer, Meditation, and the Devotional Attitude
Importance of the Arts in Promoting the Faith
Islands of the North Sea
Islands of the South Pacific
Issues Concerning Community Functioning
Issues Related to the Study of the Bahá'í Faith
Living the Life
Local Spiritual Assemblies
National Convention
National Spiritual Assembly
Nineteen Day Feast
Non-association with Covenant-breakers
Obligatory Prayer, Exemption from
On the Naming of Babies
Photographs of Bahá'u'lláh
Power of Divine Assistance, The
Preserving Baha'i Marriages
Prohibition on Drinking Alcohol
Prominent People
Promoting Entry by Troops
Psychology and Knowledge of Self
Redistribution of Wealth
Removal of Administative Rights
Representation of the Manifestations of God and the Master in Portraits, Photographs, and Dramatic Presentations
Reproduction and other Biological Subjects compilation
Reviewing Practice and Functions of Literature Review
Sanctity and Nature of Bahá'í Elections, The
Science and Technology
Scriptures of Previous Dispensations
Service in Bahá'í Temples
Significance of the Formative Age of Our Faith
Social and Economic Development
Studying the Writings of the Guardian
Teaching Among Aboriginal and Indigenous People
Teaching The Masses
The Local Spiritual Assembly
Traditional African Culture, Aspects of
Translation and provisional translations
Translation, brief compilation on
Unlocking the Power of Action
Use of Radio and Television in Teaching, The
Writers and Writing
Writings of Covenant-breakers and other Enemies of the Faith
Baha'i Prayers 9
Baha'i Prayers
Baha'i Scriptures Part 1
Baha'i Scriptures Part 2
Baha'i Scriptures Part 3
Baha'i Scriptures Part 4
Baha'i Scriptures Part 5
Baha'i World Faith Part 1
Baha'i World Faith Part 2
Baha'i World Faith Part 3
Bahiyyih Khanum
Fire and Light
Guidance for Baha'i Radio
Handmaidens of God - Baha'i Prayers for Women
Japan Will Turn Ablaze
Lights of Guidance Part 1
Free Interfaith Software

Web - Windows - iPhone

Compilations : Lights of Guidance Part 1
Lights of Guidance

“Lights of Guidance” on the Internet is allowed, and if there is any cost involved in obtaining it, the usual 10% royalty applies, to the name of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Ecuador, as per the author’s request."

Condensed Table of Contents


Extended Table of Contents
A. Administrative Order
B. Bahá'í Administration
C. Bahá'í Local Spiritual Assemblies
D. Formation of Local Spiritual Assemblies
E. Annual Conventions

F. Instruction of Tellers, Priority of Minorities, Approval of Outgoing Assembly

G. Officers of Local and National Assemblies
H. Local and National Administrators

I. Meetings of Bahá'í Assemblies, Attendance, Resignations

J. Administrative Rights, Sanctions, Dissimulation

K. Appeals
L. By-Laws
M. New Believers

N. The Believers' Relationship with the Assemblies

O. Inactive Believers


A. Bahá'í Archives
B. Bahá'í Arts and Drama*
C. Bahá'í Authors/Writers

D. Bahá'í Publication, Translation, Review and Copyright

E. Miscellaneous Subjects
A. Bahá'í Life
B. Ego-Self
C. Self-Defense
D. Self-Sacrifice and Service
A. Begging
B. Charity
C. The Poor
A. Adopted Children and Orphans
B. Godparents or Co-Parenthood
C. Education and Training of Children
E. Registration of Children
F. Miscellaneous Topics in Reference to Children
A. Appointing Committees
B. Election of Committee Officers
C. Structure and Function of National Committees

D. Special Committees (Administrative, Ad Hoc, Emergency - National and Regional Teaching Committees)

A. Bahá'í Covenant
B. Covenant Breakers-Expulsion

C. Believers Forbidden to Associate with Covenant Breakers

D. Expulsion and Reinstatement: Protection Responsibilities; Books written by Enemies of the Faith

A. Wills
B. Burial Laws
C. Bahá'í Cemeteries
D. Funeral Services
F. Suicide
G. Life after Death; the Soul
A. Academic and Spiritual
B. Universities and Colleges
A. Family Relationships
B. The Relationship Between Husband and Wife
C. Ancestors and Descendants
D. The Relationships Between Parents and Children
A. Nature and Function
B. Time for Holding Nineteen Day Feast
C. Programme for the Nineteen Day Feast
A. Contributions-Responsibility of Bahá'ís
B. Those Eligible to Contribute
C. The Treasurer and the Spiritual Assembly
D. Earmarked Funds
A. The Greatest Name
B. Ringstone Emblem and Jewellery
A. Spiritual and Physical Healing
B. Mental Illness
C. Doctors
D. Illnesses and Medical Practices
E. Physical Education
F. Diet and Nutrition
A. Institutions Defined
B. The Guardianship
C. The Universal House of Justice
D. Supreme Tribunal
E. Hands of the Cause of God
F. International Teaching Centre
G. Continental Boards of Counsellors

H. Auxiliary Boards for Protection and Propagation

I. Auxiliary Board Member Assistants

J. Relationships Between Counsellors, Auxiliary Board Members, Assistants, National and Local Assemblies and Committees

A. Introduction
B. Abortion
C. Adultery
D. Birth Control
E. Alcohol, Drugs and Tobacco
1. Alcohol
2. Drugs
3. Tobacco
F. Crime, Criminals and Prisoners
G. Gambling
H. Chastity and Sex Education
I. Homosexuality
J. Laws of Marriage
1. Parental Consent
2. Bahá'í Engagement
3. Bahá'í Marriage
K. Divorce
A. Politics
B. Governments and Civil Authorities
C. Government Employees
A. Prayer and Meditation
B. Obligatory Prayer
A. The Báb
B. Bahá'u'lláh
C. Explanation of Some Bahá'í Teachings
D. 'Abdu'l-Bahá
E. Hidden Words
F. Christ
G. Islám
H. Israel
I. Prophets and Prophecies of Various Religions
A. Reverence
B. Spirituality
A. Guidelines
B. Agriculture
C. Economics
D. Projects
E. Objectives for Social and Economic Development
F. Requisites for Success
G. Tutorial Schools
A. Summer Schools
B. Bahá'í Teaching Institutes
A. Deepening
B. Pioneers and Pioneering
C. Proclamation
D. Radio
E. Teaching
F. Mass Teaching
A. Founding of the Temple
B. Worship in the Temple
C. Temple Guiding and Other Activities
A. Work is Worship
B. Trade Unions and Strikes
Fully Extended Table of Contents
A. Administrative Order

1. Established First in America--Not American Production

2. Cannot Be Identified with Principles of Present-Day Democracies

B. Bahá'í Administration

3. The Ideal Instrument to Make Spiritual Laws Function Properly

4. Purpose of Administration
5. Social Order of Bahá'u'lláh

6. Relationship of the Cause to the Administration

C. Bahá'í Local Spiritual Assemblies
7. Assemblies Ordained by Bahá'u'lláh

8. Established in Every City--Counsellors to the Number of Bahá (9)

9. Purpose of Spiritual Assemblies
10. Their Defender is Abdu'l-Bahá
11. Assemblies Styled Differently in Future

12. Assembly Operates at First Levels of Human Society

13. Strengthening of Local Spiritual Assemblies--Nerve Centres of Communities

14. Primary Purpose to Promote Teaching Work

15. Areas Under Jurisdiction of Local Spiritual Assemblies--National Spiritual Assembly Must Study

16. Local Spiritual Assemblies--Created by Bahá'u'lláh in His Kitáb-i-Aqdas

D. Formation of Local Spiritual Assemblies

17. Forming Local Assemblies--Obligation to Establish

18. A Community of Nine Adult Believers Must Form an Assembly by Joint Declaration

19. Duty of Every Bahá'í to Take Part in Joint Declaration

20. Believer Must Be "a Resident" to Participate in the Formation of a Spiritual Assembly--Unusual Cases as Exceptions

21. Re-Formation by Election or Joint Declaration--Refusal of a Believer to Participate Does Not Prevent Re-Forming Assembly

22. Circumstances Under which an Assembly Should Not Be Immediately Dissolved

23. Members of Lapsed Assembly Are Responsible to Notify National Secretary

24. Spiritual Assembly Jurisdictions Changes As Civil Units Are Modified

25. Assemblies Cannot Be Formed in Prison

26. Qualifications of Assembly Members--Subject to Human Limitations

27. Qualifications Outlined Applicable to Anyone Elected

28. Auxiliary Board Members, Eligibility of

29. Board Members May Serve on Assembly Temporarily

30. Annual Elections Provide Opportunity to Remedy Defects the Assembly May Suffer

31. Absence of Nomination in Bahá'í Elections--A Distinguishing Feature

32. Bahá'í Electoral Procedures Develop Spirit of Responsibility

33. Freedom of Believers to Choose--Should Be Choicest, Most Varied Elements

34. Believers Should Become Intelligent, Well-Informed and Responsible Electors

35. Canvassing is Deprecated
36. Reference to Personalities Before Election
37. Avoid Intrigues
38. Election Day
39. Prayer and Reflection Before Voting
40. Procedure for Voting by Mail

41. No Quorum Required for Election of an Assembly

42. Bahá'í Elections for Spiritual Assemblies--Cast Nine Votes, Neither More nor Less

43. Believer Has Right to Vote for Himself
44. Votes Confidential
45. Secret Ballot
46. Results of Election Should Be Accepted
47. Breaking of Tie Votes

48. If Enrolled Believer Withdraws--Subsequently Elected to Spiritual Assembly

49. Mass Migrations

50. When Conditions Beyond Human Control Prevent Election of Assembly at Ridvan

51. Should Guide Believers During Year in Proper Administrative Procedures

E. Annual Conventions
52. The Functions of the National Convention
53. Election of Delegates to National Conventions

54. Area of Assembly Jurisdiction Not to be Subdivided for Electoral Districts

55. Delegates Assigned According to Numerical Strength

56. Inactivity Does Not Justify Removing Name from Voting List

57. Replacement of Delegates

58. National Spiritual Assembly Determines Timing in Respect to Unit Conventions

59. Consultation Between Delegates and the National Spiritual Assembly

60. Status of Members of the National Spiritual Assembly at the National Convention

61. Preferably Delegates Attend Convention in Person

62. If Delegate Cannot Pay Own Expenses
63. New Blood Adds to Energy of the Group

64. Election of New Members on the National Spiritual Assembly--Duty of Friends to Acquaint Themselves with Fellow Believers

65. Consultation Among Delegates of a Region Prior to Convention--No Objection, if the Bahá'ís Are Mature Enough

66. National Spiritual Assembly Present as an Institution at the National Convention

67. Only Delegates May Vote in the National Convention

68. Each Voter Must Vote for the Nine Best Suited for Election--Not Betray Sacred Trust

69. National Convention Must Be Convened During Ridvan

70. Election of National Spiritual Assembly to be Held at Midpoint in the Convention

71. National Teaching Conference and National Convention Should Not Be Held at the Same Time

72. Attendance Record of National Spiritual Assembly Members May Be Provided to Convention Delegates

73. Workshops During National Convention Not Suitable

74. Delegates Have Specific Administrative Duties

75. Non-Delegate Can Be Permitted to Address Convention--Permissiveness Not to be Abused

76. Auxiliary Board Members Present at National Convention

77. Desirable Auxiliary Board Members Be Left Free from Administrative Duties

78. Hands of the Cause and Counsellors' Participation in Conventions

79. Counsellors Ineligible for Membership on Administrative Bodies

F. Instruction of Tellers, Priority of Minorities, Approval of Outgoing Assembly

80. Tellers Should Be Given Guidelines--Recording of Identical Names

81. Convention Procedure in Connection with Tellers' Report

82. Under Certain Conditions One or More Names May Be Invalidated

83. Minority Accorded Priority Without Question

84. Definition of Minority and Majority at Discretion of the National Spiritual Assembly

85. Results Reported to National Assembly for Acceptance and Instruction to Tellers About Re-Voting

86. Only Names of Those Tied Appear on Subsequent Ballots

87. How to Report a Tie

88. First, New Assembly Must Consider Whether to Accept Resignation

89. By-Election Can Be Held During Convention Only if All Delegates Are Present

90. Tie for Ninth Member of the National Spiritual Assembly

91. Duty of Auxiliary Board Member to Advise Assembly, Not Delegates, that He Will Not Serve

92. Board Members Should Not Resign Before a Tie-Breaking Vote is Cast

93. Preservation of Ballots
94. Assembly Has Right to Examine Ballots

95. Delegates Should Be Given Opportunity to Report to the Community

G. Officers of Local and National Assemblies

96. If All Members Present, Permanent Officers Should Be Elected Immediately

97. Assembly or Committee Members May Excuse Themselves from Being Elected as Officers

98. It is Preferable that a Person Hold No More Than One Office

99. Complete Results of Each Vote Must Be Known to All Members of the Assembly Present

100. The Integrity of the Elector Must Be Relied Upon

101. Any Officer Elected Must Have Received at Least Five Votes

102. The Chairman of the Assembly
103. The Vice-Chairman
104. Duties of the National Secretary

105. The Secretary of the National Spiritual Assembly is Its Chief Executive Officer

106. Full-Time Services of Secretary May Require Remuneration, about which the Agreement Should Be Duly Recorded

107. Secretary's Helper Can Be Non-Member of Assembly

108. Secretariat Should Be Situated in the Capital City

109. National Secretary Should Keep in Close Touch with Local Assemblies

110. Contents of Minutes

111. Secretary Should Be Careful to Convey Majority Decision

112. Treasurer of the Spiritual Assembly Receives All Donations and Contributions

113. Handling of Funds

114. Obligation of a Bahá'í Who is Elected to an Office which Requires Full-Time Service

115. Those Elected to an Assembly Should Consider It a Privilege and a Responsibility to Serve

116. Procedure for Assemblies When Dissatisfied with Officers

H. Local and National Administrators

117. Functions and Duties of Elected Representatives

118. They Must Uphold the Standard of Justice
119. Administrators of Faith Like Shepherds

120. The Ones in Real Authority Known by Humility and Self-Sacrifice

121. Keynote of Cause of God Not Dictatorial Authority

122. Assemblies Should Influence Believers to Confidently Present Their Problems

123. Breach of Trust by Assembly Members Will Destroy Confidence of Believers

124. Administrative Efficiency Should Be Accompanied by an Equal Amount of Love

125. Administrators Should Consider Themselves as Mere Channels Whereby God Protects and Guides His Faith

126. National Spiritual Assembly is Supreme Authority, Mainspring of Activities, Sole Link to the Universal House of Justice

127. Obedience to the National Spiritual Assembly is the Basis for Unity

128. The National Spiritual Assembly is the Head and the Local Spiritual Assemblies Are the Various Organs

129. Vital Function of National Spiritual Assembly

130. Authority and Influence of Assemblies Must Be Strengthened

131. A "Best" Assembly

132. Centralization of Authority Made Manifest in Master's Will

133. Fundamentals of Bahá'í Administration Must Be Adhered to

134. Tendency of All National Assemblies to Over-Administer

135. It is Not Necessary to Anticipate Situations

136. Over-Administration Worse than Under-Administration

137. National Spiritual Assemblies Should Be Uncompromising in Principle But Flexible in Procedures

138. National Assembly is Guardian of the Welfare of the Faith

139. Tendency of Late-Comers to Belittle Work Done

140. Each Believer Should Have Access to Communications from World Centre of His Faith

141. Legal Standing for Spiritual Assemblies

142. Local Assemblies Should Give Teachers Every Encouragement

143. Class Consciousness Contrary to Actual Teachings of Faith

144. Extension Teaching Goals, Local Assemblies Should Assume Responsibility for

145. Plans of the Assemblies Should Be Known to Counsellors and Auxiliary Board Members

146. Local Spiritual Assemblies' Relations with Auxiliary Board

147. All Local Spiritual Assemblies Should Collaborate with Auxiliary Board Members and Their Assistants

148. When Local Spiritual Assemblies Are Truly Effective

149. A Functioning Local Spiritual Assembly--Salient Objectives to be Attained

150. Prominent People, Foster Cordial Relations with

151. Public Figures

152. Individual Members of the Local Spiritual Assembly Should Deepen

153. Members of Spiritual Assembly Must Face Responsibilities

I. Meetings of Bahá'í Assemblies, Attendance, Resignations

154. Obligation of Assembly Members to Meet and Discharge Sacred Responsibilities

155. Membership in Bahá'í Assembly or Committee is a Sacred Obligation-- Should Endeavor to Attend All Meetings

156. Teaching Must Be Accorded Precedence When in Session

157. All Meetings Must Revolve Around One Focal Center--Teach

158. Principle on which to Conduct the Work of an Assembly

159. Why Some Local Assemblies Do Not Meet

160. How Often to Meet--The Spiritual Assembly Must Decide

161. Bahá'u'lláh's Promise

162. Not Possible to Have Non-Assembly Member in National Spiritual Assembly Meeting

163. Distribution of Minutes of Meetings
164. Access to Records of the Spiritual Assembly
165. Business Can Be Conducted with a Quorum
166. Assembly Quorum
167. Duties of Assembly Members
168. Abstaining Does Not Arise in Bahá'í Voting

169. Bahá'ís Not Required to Vote Against Consciences

170. Only Under Special Circumstances is It Permissible to Resign from the Spiritual Assembly

171. Differences of Opinion Should Not Deter One from Performing His Bahá'í Activities

172. There Should Be a Valid Reason for Resignation

173. Should National Assembly Members Be Relieved of Local Assembly Service?

174. Not Appropriate to Elect a Temporary Assembly Member

175. Non-Attendance of Assembly Members--No Time Limit Fixed

176. Repeated, Unjustified Absence Cause for Suspension of Voting Rights

177. Criticism, Opposition, Confusion Do Not Provide Grounds for Resignation --Sanction May Be Necessary

J. Administrative Rights, Sanctions, Dissimulation

178. Basis for Deprivation of Voting Rights

179. Assembly Should Not Deprive Believer of Rights Unless the Matter is Very Grave

180. No Bahá'í Can Swear to Bring Up His Children in Another Religion nor be Married in Church as a Christian

181. Alcoholic Beverages--Those Who Continue to Drink

182. Divorce
183. Ecclesiastical and Political Associations
184. Politics, Participation in
185. Homosexual Acts Condemned by Bahá'u'lláh
186. Immorality, Blatant Acts of
187. Criminal Offences, Believers Charged with

188. Should Be Given Chance to Improve--A Lesser Sanction May Be Applied

189. One Offence of Immorality Not Enough to Incur Heavy Penalty

190. Civil Marriage Ceremony Only

191. Parents' Voting Rights Can Be Suspended if Consent is Given Contrary to Bahá'í Law

192. Bahá'í Membership in Masonic, Theosophical, Rosicrucian, and Similar Societies

193. Mental Illness
194. Mental Unfitness

195. Withdrawal of Administrative Rights from One Mentally Ill is Not a Sanction

196. National Assembly Can Debar an Individual from Serving on a Local Assembly Without Removing Voting Rights

197. Voting Rights, Only National Assembly Can Deprive Believers of

198. Status of Those Who Lose Voting Rights

199. No Bahá'í Marriage if One is Deprived of Voting Rights--A Bahá'í in Good Standing Cannot Marry One So Deprived

200. Heaviest Sanction We Possess--Deprivation of Voting Rights

201. Before Anyone Deprived of Voting Rights Must Be Given Repeated Warnings

202. No Justification Suspension of Voting Rights Pending Investigation

203. Believer Cannot Escape Expulsion by Resignation in Order to Break Law with Impunity

204. Dissimulation is Not Withdrawal
205. Ignorance of the Law
206. Child Out of Wedlock

207. Loss of Voting Rights--Is to be Administratively Expelled

208. Cases Involving Only Civil Ceremony

209. Voting Rights Removed Mistakenly or Justifiably

210. Youth, Disciplinary Action Against

211. If Acts of Immorality Are Not Generally Known--Gossip

212. Community Attitude Toward Those Who Are Deprived of Voting Rights

213. The Assemblies Should Be Like the Master and the "Good Shepherd"

214. The Believer So Deprived Who Makes an Effort to Mend His Ways Should Be Helped

215. Bahá'ís Must Not Dissimulate Their Faith Under Any Circumstances

216. Summary of the Extent of Deprivation of Voting Rights

217. Summary of the Rights and Privileges Not Deprived

K. Appeals
218. Right to and Procedure for Appeal

219. Appeal from Local Assembly's Decision to the National Assembly

220. Infringement of Bahá'í Rights

221. Every Bahá'í May Write Directly to the Universal House of Justice, But Appeals Should Be Submitted Through the National Spiritual Assembly

222. The Appellant's Request for Referral of Appeal to the Universal House of Justice Cannot Be Refused

223. Committees Should Take Up Their Problems with the National Spiritual Assembly

L. By-Laws
224. Purpose of By-Laws

225. A Báby Can Be Considered a Bahá'í--Declaration Age 15 for Protection

226. New York Version of By-Laws More Correct

227. Matter of Belief in Bahá'u'lláh Not of Availability for Participation

228. The National Spiritual Assembly Must Defend and Uphold Provisions of By-Laws and Declaration of Trust

229. International Uniformity in the Essentials is to be Maintained--The Local By-Laws

230. Decisions of Local and National Assemblies Subject to Review by Higher Body--No Contradiction in By-Laws

231. Incorporation is Not Necessarily Lost by the Temporary Dissolution of the Local Spiritual Assembly

M. New Believers
232. The Cause of God Has Room for All

233. Abdu'l-Bahá'í Example--Nurse New Believer Patiently

234. The Two Extremes in Bringing in New Bahá'ís

235. No Obstacles Should Be Placed Before Any Soul

236. Enrollments, New--Those Responsible for

237. The Process of Becoming a Bahá'í is an Evolutionary One

238. Admittance Into the Faith--Essential Prerequisites

239. On Becoming a Bahá'í
240. Warning to Every Beginner in the Faith

241. Not Sufficient to Accept Some Aspects of Teachings and Reject Others

242. When Enrolling New Believers, Must Be Wise and Gentle

243. If Requirements to Enroll Made Too Rigorous, Will Cool Off Initial Enthusiasm

244. A Bahá'í Must Be Wholly a Bahá'í; Must Not Be Insular

245. A True Bahá'í Should Justify His Claim to be a Bahá'í

246. The Primary Reason for Becoming a Bahá'í
247. Ploughing Up the Soil of the Heart

248. New Believers Must Not Be Left to Their Own Devices

249. Deepening the Spiritual Life of the Individual Believers

250. Assemblies and Committees Must Enable Believers to Carry Forth Message of God

251. If One Desires to Become a Bahá'í, His Past Should Not Be Held Against Him

252. Convert Advised Not to Become Alienated from Parents

253. Assembly Should Not Prevent Enrollment of Persons With Questionable Morals--When Accepted New Enrollees Should Henceforth Conduct Themselves As Bahá'ís

254. May Be Occasions When Enrollment Must Be Postponed

255. Qualifications of a Believer

256. The Process of Acceptance Varies--Stage of Conviction Important

257. Declarants Need Not Know All the Proofs--Spark of Faith

258. Acceptance of New Believers Left to Discretion of Assembly

259. Mental Instability Has No Bearing Upon Acceptance of an Enrollment

260. In These Special Cases, Steps Should Be Taken to Deepen Their Understanding

261. Declaration of Faith Normally Accepted from Those Living in Immoral Situation or from Member of an Organization Not Permissible--To Be Given Time to Rectify Situation

262. Children Are Accepted as Bahá'ís Regardless of Age

263. Prisoners, Declarations from

264. Signature on Card is to Satisfy Administrative Requirements--There is a Difference Between Character and Faith

265. Enrolment Card--Not a Universal Requirement
266. Duty of Assembly to Newly Enrolled Believer

N. The Believers' Relationship with the Assemblies

267. Being a Bahá'í Essentially an Inner Thing

268. Should Have Respect for National and Local Assemblies

269. This Great Prize, This Gift of God--Local Spiritual Assembly

270. Assembly is a Nascent House of Justice--Individuals Toward Each Other Governed by Love, Unity, etc.

271. Two Kinds of Bahá'ís

272. Spiritual Children Should Not Cling to Misconceptions of Their Teachers

273. Assemblies Should Inspire Confidence in Individual Believers

274. Buckets-Full of Administrative Information: Putting Out the First Sparks

275. Look to the Teachings

276. Two Principles to Follow: Doctrinal and Administrative Unity

277. Bahá'í Administration--Instrument of Spirit of the Faith

278. Bahá'í World Community Develops New Cells, New Organs

279. Believers Should Turn to Assemblies for Advice and Help

280. Mission of Bahá'u'lláh, Friends Are Trustees of

281. Believers Should Have Confidence in Assembly

282. If Assembly Makes Ill-Advised Decision It Must Be Upheld

283. If Assembly Makes a Mistake--God Will Right the Wrongs Done

284. Obedience, Patience and Restraint

285. Criticism to Assemblies--Bahá'ís Can Freely Air Their Views

286. No Protection for Faith Unless Friends Submit to Administrative Bodies

287. If Bahá'ís Undermine Leaders

288. Believers Have the Right to Express Their Criticism Action of Assembly, But Not in a Way to Undermine Its Authority

289. Obedience to the Decisions of the Local Assembly Should Be Unqualified and Whole-Hearted

290. Local Assembly Should Not Criticize Policy of National Assembly

291. Only One Remedy--Study the Administration

292. On Individual Believer Depends Fate of Community

O. Inactive Believers

293. Voting List, Names Should Not Be Removed from

294. Removal of Names from Voting List

295. Inactive and Unresponsive Believers Often Need Encouragement

296. Inactive Believers--Names Removed Only When Clearly Stated No Longer Believe in Bahá'u'lláh

297. Reasons for Inactivity Should Be Ascertained

298. Meetings Should Be Made So Interesting as to Attract the Old Believers

299. Must Aid Those with Unbecoming Conduct to Mend Their Ways

300. If Person Does Not Wish to be Considered Member

301. The Personal Situation of a Bahá'í May Preclude Activity

302. Those Who No Longer Believe in Bahá'u'lláh...

303. Believers Whose Whereabouts Are Unknown


304. The Hidden Words of Bahá'u'lláh
305. Backbiting Defined
306. Abstain from Fault-Finding and Backbiting

307. Jealousy or Petty Attitudes Can Only Be Overcome by Love and Tact

308. Dealing with Bahá'ís Who Act in Ways Detrimental to the Cause

309. Learning Not to Concern Ourselves with the Faults of Others

310. The Believers Need More Peace-Makers Circulating Among Them--A Function of the Older and the More Mature Bahá'ís

311. To Be Forbearing, Patient, Merciful, Rather Than Succumbing to Backbiting and Criticism

312. Backbiting--The Most Great Sin

313. Backbiting "Quencheth the Light of the Heart"

314. Criticism a Calamity

315. Suppress Every Critical Thought and Every Harsh Word

316. An Unwise Act or Statement

317. Personal Differences and Petty Pre-Occupations

318. Like Ploughmen Each Has His Team to Manage
319. Be a Friend to the Whole Human Race
320. Bahá'ís Must Be Distinguished
321. Believers Should Draw on Each Other's Love
322. Worst Enemies of the Cause Are in the Cause
323. Backbiting is Divisive
324. When Criticism and Harsh Words Arise
325. If We Listen, We Are Guilty of Complicity
A. Bahá'í Archives

326. Bahá'u'lláh Admonishes Care in Preservation of the Tablets

327. Tablets and Verses to be Gathered into the Archives

328. Bahá'í Archives, Institution of
329. Future Generations Will Appreciate Archives

330. All Assembly Members Should Have Access to the Files--Certain Items Can Be Listed as "Confidential"

331. Every Believer Has Responsibility to Assist with Preservation of Sacred Relics

332. Bahá'í Archives to be Established in Each Bahá'í Administrative Centre

333. Documents of Historical Value Should Not Be Destroyed

B. Bahá'í Arts and Drama*
334. Three Central Figures Cannot Be Portrayed
335. Dramatic Works
336. Dancers Must Be Decently Clad

337. The Artistic Presentation of the Faith Will Attract a Certain Type of Individual

338. Art Can Better Awaken Noble Sentiments
339. Taking Part in Dramas--Dancing
340. Film Companies
341. Movies
342. Dramatizing Historic Episodes of the Faith

343. If Light Suggests Personification of the Manifestation, It Should Not Be Used

344. Prohibition on Representing Manifestations of God in Paintings or Drawings Applies to All Manifestations

345. Need for Skill to Produce an Effective Film about History of the Faith

*(See also: Chapter, Music)
C. Bahá'í Authors/Writers

346. Bahá'í Authors Should Write in Such Manner as to Attract the Souls

347. Bahá'í Writers Should Have Their Works Approved for Publication by National Assembly of Country Where Published

348. Bahá'í Authors/Writers Should Welcome Review of Their Works

349. Review of Magazine Articles Written by Individual Believers

350. The Reviewing Committee

351. Obligation of Bahá'ís to Present the Faith in Dignified Manner

352. The Function and Purpose of Reviewing
353. Purpose of Review

354. No Objection to Bahá'ís Writing Novels Portraying Historical Events

355. Journalists

356. Sciences that Begin and End with Words--Bahá'u'lláh Never Meant to Include Story Writing Under this Category

357. The Faith Needs Bahá'í Authors
358. Doctoral Theses and Similar Treatises

359. No Publisher Has the Right to Alter Author's Manuscript

D. Bahá'í Publication, Translation, Review and Copyright

360. Bahá'í Newsletters and Bulletins--Why Circulation is Restricted to "Bahá'ís Only"

361. Usage in Spanish Texts of Accents on Persian and Arabic Words

362. Publications from World Centre--No Restriction on Use of Quotations

363. Copyright Clearance on Sacred Writings Not Necessary for Assemblies and Bahá'í Believers

364. Capitalizing Pronouns in English
365. Capitalizing Pronouns in Other Languages

366. Quotation Marks--Must Uphold Rigid Standard Inculcated by the Cause

367. National Spiritual Assembly Authorizes Translations Through a Committee of Bahá'í Translators--The Guardian's Method of Transliteration Should Be Used

368. Guidelines for the Translation of Bahá'í Sacred Writings

369. An Individual Can Be Commissioned to Make Translations--Translations Become Property of the Assembly

370. Translation of Bahá'í Literature into Everyday Language-- Simplifications and Paraphrasing Not to be Published as Scripture

371. Translators Should Utilize Most Recent Editions of Books

E. Miscellaneous Subjects
372. Friday is Day of Rest in Bahá'í Calendar
373. Use of Bahá'í Dates
374. Bahá'í Faith, Designation of
375. Symbol of Bahá'í Faith--Five-Pointed Star
A. Bahá'í Life
376. The Great Thing is to "Live the Life"

377. If Health is Spent in Sensual Desires, Death Preferable to Such a Life

378. To Attract the Hearts of Others It is Necessary to Live Up to the Teachings

379. Bahá'ís Must Cling to Their Faith and to Each Other

380. The Advertisements for the Faith Are Love, Hospitality, Understanding and the Will to Help

381. How to Acquire Peace of Mind

382. One Should Not Give the Impression of Being Fanatic--Seek to be Many-Sided, Normal and Well-Balanced

383. The Inner Life of the Spirit is What Counts

384. Through Deep Study and Living the Life to Become Like Firm Rocks

385. Evolution of the Soul
B. Ego-Self
386. The Meaning of Self
387. The Ego is the Animal Within Us

388. Life is a Constant Struggle Against Forces Around Us and Our Own "Egos"

389. The Prophets Are the Only Ones Free of the "Dross of Self"

390. Self Mastery, Key to

391. Through the Search for God, We Become Acquainted with Ourselves

392. Becoming Conscious of Self is a Gradual Process

393. Man's Evolution is Both Individual and Collective

394. The Cause Has the Spiritual Power to Re-Create Us

395. Our Thoughts Should Be Turned Determinedly, Intelligently and Unemotionally to God

396. We Should Focus on the Glory of the Cause and Not on Our Failures

397. Do Not Dwell on Others' Thoughts and Attitudes

C. Self-Defense

398. Bahá'í Justified in Defending His Life in Emergency

399. Self-Defense

400. Pioneer Living in a Remote Area Lacking Protection: Circumstances Under which a Bahá'í is Justified in Defending Self

D. Self-Sacrifice and Service
401. The Mystery of Sacrifice
402. Self-Sacrifice, Meaning of

403. To What Extent Should We Sacrifice Our Lives for the Interest of the Cause?

404. Accepting to Suffer for Each Other's Sake
405. Service as Magnet for Divine Confirmation
406. Assistance of Hosts of Divine Concourse

407. An Irresistible Urge to Serve--Do Not Look at Your Shortcomings

408. There is No Rule or Standard Requiring a Believer to Serve in One Field at the Exclusion of Others

A. Begging

409. Begging is Forbidden--House of Justice to Provide for Disabled

410. Beggars--Most Despised of Men in the Sight of God

B. Charity
411. Charity is the Very Essence of the Teachings

412. Contributions to Charity by Assemblies and Individuals

413. Surest Way of Lifting Once and for All Burden of Hunger and Misery

414. There Are Many Ways that Help Can Be Rendered to Suffering Fellow-Men

415. Bahá'ís Have the Divinely-Given Remedy for the Ills of Mankind

416. When a Bahá'í Finds It Essential to Seek the Help of Others

417. Local Spiritual Assembly Should Extend Helping Hand to the Poor

418. How a Bahá'í May Help His Fellow-Believer Through the Institutions

C. The Poor

419. Those Possessed of Riches Must Have the Utmost Regard for the Poor

420. The Greatest Gift We Can Give to the Poor

421. Do Not Grieve for Being Poor--Some Great Souls Were of the Poorest in the World

422. The World is in Travail

423. Powerful Forces Are Operating to Bring to a Climax this Portentous Century

424. The People of Bahá Are Assured of Divine Guidance

425. If Bahá'ís Fail They Are Partly Responsible for Agony of Mankind

426. The World Will Experience Travails and Testing as Never Before

427. Calamities Will Continue Until Mankind is Chastened Sufficiently...

428. Bahá'ís Should Not Waste Time Speculating on the Coming Calamity

429. It is Important that Bahá'ís Have Correct Attitude Regarding Pending Catastrophe

430. Should Bahá'ís Be Cut Off from World Centre or from One Another, They Will Be Guided by Spiritual Assemblies, Led by Counsellors, Auxiliary Board Members

431. Bahá'ís Can Help to Mitigate Suffering of Mankind

432. The People of Today Are Suffering for Their Own Sins of Omission and Commission

433. We Must Put the Faith First for Our Eternal Security and Happiness

434. We Do Not Know How Far-Reaching the Catastrophe Will Be

435. The Unification of Mankind
436. The Crisis is Serving a Great Purpose

437. The Guardian Does Not Think that God Will Permit Man to Annihilate Himself...

438. Hardship and Privation, Frustration and Despair Shall Encompass the People...

439. Apocalyptic Upheaval

440. World Condition Bringing Many Issues to a Head

441. Calamities and Crises

442. Internal Disintegration and External Chaos Being Accelerated

443. Worsening World Situation--Many Stand Aside and Wring Their Hands

444. A Yawning Gulf Threatens

445. Forces of a World Catastrophe--The Fire of Ordeal

446. When Crisis Sweeps Over the World, Bahá'ís Should Not Let Hardships Weaken Their Hope in the Future

447. Stage of Purgation is Indispensable--Bahá'ís Should Not Hope to Remain Unaffected

448. Dangers Facing America

449. Man's Outlook on Life Too Crude and Materialistic

450. Mental Tests to be Suffered by Believers in the West

451. A Civilization Torn by Strife

452. Fierce and Manifold Will Be Assaults Faith to Suffer

453. Our Duty to Redeem Fellow Men

454. Bahá'ís Are the Leaven of God, the Chosen People of God

455. Eyes of the World Focussed on Us

456. Bahá'ís Have Task of Cleansing Humanity by Precept and Example

457. Chosen Ones of God Should Not Be Content with Relative Distinction and Excellence

458. Obstacles that Stand in the Path

459. Civilization Undergoing Severe and Unparalleled Tests


460. Not Accurate to State that Bahá'í Faith Has No Ceremonies

461. Naming Ceremonies
462. Spiritual Baptism of Children
463. Baptism of Child

464. Bahá'ís May and Should Participate in Harmless Cultural, Traditional Observances

465. There Are Some Religious Ceremonies in which Bahá'ís Should Not Participate

466. Bahá'í Parent May Attend Baptismal Ceremony, but Cannot Make Any Commitment or Vow

A. Adopted Children and Orphans

467. "He that Bringeth Up His Son or the Son of Another..."

468. Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá Laud Those Who Adopt Children

469. Adopted Child and Its Natural Parents

470. A Bahá'í Cannot Take Vow to Educate Adopted Child in Another Religion

471. A Bahá'í Who Swears to Rear His Children in Another Faith is Subject to Administrative Sanction

472. Duty Towards Orphans
B. Godparents or Co-Parenthood
473. Bahá'ís Serving as Godparents

474. Bahá'í Couple Should Not Have Their Child Baptized

475. A Bahá'í May Become Godparent of a Non-Bahá'í Child if Conditions Are Clear

476. Those Who Took Vows as Godparents Prior to Becoming Bahá'ís

477. Non-Bahá'í Godparents of Bahá'í Children

478. Two Bahá'ís May Enter into a Co-Parental Agreement

C. Education and Training of Children

479. Must First Train Children in Principles of Religion

480. Encourage the Children from Early Childhood

481. Incumbent Upon Bahá'í Children to Surpass Other Children

482. Parents Held Responsible to God for Education of Children

483. Teachers of Children Serving Bahá'u'lláh

484. Failure to Educate Child is an Unpardonable Sin

485. Child Left in Natural State Grows Up in Ignorance...

486. If Bábe Did Not Live at All, Better Than to Grow Ignorant

487. Training in Morals and Good Conduct is Far More Important Than Book Learning

488. Pupil Must Be Encouraged

489. Station of Those Who Serve and Teach Children

490. Methods of Teaching Children
491. A Wise Schoolmaster

492. Curriculum of Study: Must Follow Same Curriculum for Daughters and Sons

493. Beginning of Formal Education
494. Subjects to be Taught in Children's Classes

495. Formal Education Must Begin at the Age of Five

496. Nothing in Teachings States Child Must Not Be Separated from Parents for First Five Years

497. Mother Has Chief Responsibility for Bringing Up Child

498. Mothers Ordained Primary Trainers of Children and Infants

499. Training of Children in Case One of Parents is Non-Bahá'í

500. Greatest of All Services Rendered by Man to Almighty God--Teach Children to Deliver Speeches of High Quality

501. Preferable that Child Should Receive First Training at Home Under Mother Instead of in the Nursery

502. Spiritual Assemblies Should Provide Mothers with Well-Planned Programme

503. Difficult to Teach and Refine Character Once Puberty is Passed

504. Should Train Children to Memorize Prayers and Tablets

505. Sacred Duty of Children Towards Their Parents

506. Children Should Be Trained to Understand Spiritual Significance of Bahá'í Meetings

507. Few Children Are Really Bad
508. Children Fighting
509. Physical Punishment

510. Problem Child: Discipline of Some Sort Indispensable

511. It is Not Permissible to Strike a Child
E. Registration of Children

512. Bahá'í Children Do Not Automatically Inherit Faith of Parents

513. Children Whose Parents Become Bahá'ís
514. Status of Children Under the Age of 15

515. Age 15 Relates to Spiritual Functions and Obligations

516. Children Under 15 Cannot Marry

517. Children Are of Age at 15 as Far as Keeping Laws of Aqdas

518. Children of Bahá'í Parents Considered as Bahá'ís

519. Registering Children Upon Attaining Age 15

520. Upon Attainment of Age 15 Child Must Reaffirm His Faith

521. Registration of Children of Bahá'í Parents

522. May Be Circumstances in which Children Should Not Be Registered

F. Miscellaneous Topics in Reference to Children

523. Children Should Be Free to Choose Their Own Religion

524. Teach Child to Say Greatest Name in Moments of Crisis

525. Criticizing the Faith in Front of Children

526. The Real Object of Life--The Guardian Prays for Children

527. Teach Children to be Kind to Animals

528. Bahá'í Children Can Give to the Fund--Non-Bahá'í Children, No Ruling Made; Teacher to Solve Problem

529. The Universal House of Justice Responds to Children's Questions Regarding the Catastrophe


530. Bahá'ís Must Have No Affiliation with Churches

531. We Must Have the Courage of Our Convictions

532. On Becoming a Bahá'í Should Withdraw from Church

533. Bahá'ís Are Ardent Believers in Christ

534. Ministers Who Consider Themselves Bahá'ís Should Withdraw from Church Membership

535. Membership in Jewish Synagogue

536. Withdrawal of Bahá'í Youth from Church Membership

537. For Sake of Family Unity Concession Made for Youth

538. Bahá'í Attitude Toward the Church
539. On Being Expelled from Church
540. Paying Church Tax
541. Contributions to a Church
542. History of the Early Church
A. Appointing Committees

543. Freedom to Appoint Any Bahá'í Qualified for the Work

544. Continuity of Committee Personnel

545. Preferable Some Qualified Native Believers Serve on Committee

546. Desirability of Easy Meeting of National Teaching Committee--If Possible, Not to be Burdened with Other Duties

547. Committees Can Be Constituted with Eye for Improvement and Change

548. Assembly Should Use Discretion When Appointing Committee Members-- Incompatible Personalities on Committees

549. National Committees Ordinarily Appointed by and Responsible to the National Spiritual Assembly

550. Non-Members of Assemblies Should Be Given the Opportunity to Develop Administrative Skills

551. Not Necessary that Committee Appointments Expire at Ridvan

B. Election of Committee Officers

552. All Committee Members Must Be Given Opportunity to Cast Ballot-- Election of Officers by Majority, Not Plurality

553. If Member Has a Good Reason, He is Free to Suggest He Should Not Be Elected to Office

C. Structure and Function of National Committees

554. An Efficient Teaching Structure Must Be Adopted by the National Spiritual Assembly

555. Function of the National Teaching Committee

556. National Committees Constituted to Serve Needs of Local Assemblies

557. National Assembly Should Issue Instructions to National Teaching Committee to Avoid Confusion

558. Some Committees Need Larger Membership

D. Special Committees (Administrative, Ad Hoc, Emergency - National and Regional Teaching Committees)

559. Administrative Committees Have Authority Only as Given Them by National Spiritual Assembly

560. Ad Hoc Committees Can Be Appointed to Deal with Personal Problems

561. When an Assembly Lapses, Administrative Committee Can Be Named from Adult Believers of Community

562. Scope of the Functions of the Emergency Committee

563. Latitude of Actions that May Be Taken by an Emergency Committee

564. National Assembly Defines Limits Placed on Emergency Committee-- Decisions of Committee Are Subject to Subsequent Approval of Assembly as a Whole

565. Quorum of Emergency Committee Members

566. Special Committee Can Be Named to Assume Responsibility for Consolidation

567. Not Necessary for National Committees to be Centred at National Headquarters

568. Regional Committees--Sub-Committees of National Teaching Committee

569. Too Many Committees Confuse Rather Than Clarify the Work

570. Relationship of National Teaching Committee to Regional Teaching Committees

571. Auxiliary Board Member Can Serve on Certain Special Committees

572. Collaboration Between Auxiliary Board Members and National and Regional Teaching Committees

573. National Youth Committee

574. Young Bahá'ís Under 21 May Serve on Committees

575. Local Committees

576. Structure of National and Regional Teaching Committees


577. No Welfare, Well-Being Can Be Attained Except Through Consultation

578. Consultation and Compassion
579. Consultation, Frank and Unfettered

580. The Purpose of Consultation--Should the People of a Village Consult One Another...

581. Each Bosom Must Be a Telegraph Station

582. Any Person Can Refer a Matter to the Assembly

583. Every Member to Express Freely and Openly His Views

584. Abstaining Does Not Arise in Bahá'í Voting

585. Majority Decisions--Instances When Assembly May Decide that All Nine Members Must Be Present

586. No Dissenting Votes in the Cause

587. Suspend Consultation when Enmity and Threats Occur

588. Take No Important Step in Personal Affairs Without Consultation

589. When a Believer Has a Problem Several Courses Open to Him

590. Assembly Cannot Require a Member to Absent Himself from Consultation

591. A Member May Wish to Absent Himself While Own Situation Being Discussed

592. Frank, Full, Unprejudiced Consultation Must Govern Work

A. Bahá'í Covenant
593. The Bahá'í Covenant

594. Firmness in the Covenant--"Be He an Insignificant Ant..."

595. The Crimson Book

596. Regarding Covenant Entered into on Mount Paran

597. To Withstand Tests Believers Need to be Deepened in the Covenant

598. The Will and Testament of Abdu'l-Bahá--Needs a Century to Comprehend

599. The Will and Testament Safeguards the Unity of the Cause

600. Speaking Against the Covenant
B. Covenant Breakers-Expulsion
601. Covenant-Breakers, Defined
602. Covenant-Breaking is a Spiritual Disease

603. Covenant-Breaking Like Contagious Consumption and Cancer

604. Afflicted with Contagious Spiritual Disease

605. Association with Non-Bahá'ís Who Are in Association with Covenant-Breakers

606. Enemies of the Faith

C. Believers Forbidden to Associate with Covenant Breakers

607. Ex-Communication

608. No One Has the Right to See Covenant-Breakers Without Permission

609. Bahá'ís Cannot Associate with Those Who Have Left the Cause and Are Associating with Covenant-Breakers

610. Bahá'í May Remain at Non-Bahá'í Meeting if Covenant-Breaker Appears

611. Personal Relations with Covenant-Breakers

612. All Covenant-Breakers Regardless of Nature of Disobedience Must Be Treated in Exactly the Same Manner

613. Opposition Due to Ignorance or Lack of Proper Training is Not Covenant-Breaking

614. Role of Auxiliary Board Member for Protection

615. God's Mercy Exceeds His Justice

616. To Be the Enemy of the Enemies of God is Good Characteristic

617. It is Better to be Too Vigilant Than to be Too Lax

618. Possibly No Group Have Softer Tongues Than the Covenant-Breakers

619. National Assembly Should Consider Itself as Committee of Vigilance

620. Bahá'ís Need More Than Anything Else in the World Deeper Understanding Covenants of Bahá'u'lláh and Master

D. Expulsion and Reinstatement: Protection Responsibilities; Books written by Enemies of the Faith

621. Expulsion of Covenant-Breakers

622. Protection Specific Function of the Hands of the Cause

623. Expulsion and Reinstatement

624. Accomplishments to be Attained with the Covenant of the Everlasting Father

625. Course on Covenant-Breaking Should Be Included in Summer School Curriculum

626. Should Not Accept Contributions from Those Who Lose Voting Rights: They Can Be Buried in Bahá'í Cemetery, Receive Charity

627. Literature Written by Enemies of the Faith
628. Books by Unenlightened Enemies of the Cause
629. Obedience to the Center of the Covenant
A. Wills

630. Every Bahá'í is Encouraged to Make a Will and Testament

631. By Preparing a Legal Will, the Believer Can Dispose of His Estate as He Chooses, Within Limits of Law

632. Neither National nor Local Assembly Should Be Named Executor, if the Institution So Prefers

633. Bahá'ís Should Make Their Will Specifying the Desire for a Bahá'í Funeral--Should Inform the Assembly and the Non-Bahá'í Relatives

634. The Spiritual Assembly Must Carefully Consider Bequest of the Testator-- Unreasonable Demands May Be Refused

635. A Provision in the Will Contrary to Bahá'í Law Should Be Declared Null and Void by the Assembly

636. Bahá'ís Are Free to Formulate Provisions of Their Wills--We Are Not Permitted to Challenge Provisions of Another's Will

B. Burial Laws

637. Forbidden to Carry Body More Than an Hour's Distance

638. Burial Law Binding on Believers in the West

639. Preparation for Burial--Embalming Not Permitted

640. Bahá'í Burial Law--Coffin Should Be of Crystal, Stone or Wood

641. Foetus to be Treated With Respect, No Matter How Young

642. Cremation is Contrary to Bahá'í Law--Bahá'í Relatives and the Spiritual Assembly Are Responsible

643. In Case of Death at Sea, Maritime Law is Applicable--Burial on Land is Preferable

644. Believer Should Ensure that He Will Be Buried According to Bahá'í Law

645. Enfolding the Body of the Deceased

646. Face of the Dead Should Be Turned Toward the Qiblih

647. Hour's Journey May Be Calculated from City Limits

648. Graveyard More Than an Hour on Foot from a Village

649. The Burial Stone
650. Bury the Dead in Silk

651. Should Advise Bahá'ís in Military Service of Burial Laws

C. Bahá'í Cemeteries

652. Bahá'ís Are Permitted to Accept Land from the Government for Cemetery

653. Disinterment

654. At Present No Definite Regulations for Bahá'í Cemeteries

655. Should Not Refuse to Bury Bahá'í Who Lost Voting Rights--Assembly May Permit Burial of Non-Bahá'ís

656. The Most Great Name or Ringstone Symbol Not Appropriate on Gravestones

D. Funeral Services

657. Official Bahá'í Funeral Service for Believers Only

658. Utmost Simplicity and Flexibility Should Be Observed...

659. No Objection to Bahá'ís Attending Non-Bahá'í Funeral of Bahá'ís

660. Obligatory Prayer for the Dead--Permissible to Change Gender

661. Prayer for the Dead to be Recited by One Believer

662. Non-Bahá'ís Can Be Present When Long Prayer for the Dead is Read

663. Prayer for the Dead--Special Conditions

664. Any Prayer May Be Said for a Woman--Text Must Not Change

665. Memorial Gatherings
E. Cremation
666. Cremation

667. Body Can Be Left to Medical Science, Remains Not to be Cremated

668. The Inner Temple Beholdeth Its Physical Frame

669. Body Formed Gradually, Must Decompose Gradually

670. Spiritual Assembly Cannot Arrange for the Cremation of the Remains of a Bahá'í

671. Word "Bahá'í" in Centre of Nine-Pointed Star Can Be Used

672. Can Use Quotations from the Teachings on Tombstones

673. Possible that Non-Bahá'í Relatives Can Be Buried in Bahá'í Cemetery

F. Suicide
674. Suicide Strongly Condemned in the Teachings

675. The Light Manifested by Bahá'u'lláh Can Ease Despair of Young People

676. Bahá'ís Are Free to Pray for the Dead

677. One Should Put All Thought of Suicide and Death Out of Mind

678. Consolation for the Bereaved Parent
G. Life after Death; the Soul

679. Gifts and Good Deeds in Memory of Those Passed On

680. Man is Destined by God to Develop Spiritually Through Eternity

681. Regarding Non-Bahá'í Traditions

682. The Soul Will Continue to Ascend Through Many Worlds

683. We Can Help Every Soul Attain High Station
684. Intercession in the Other World
685. Bequests to the Poor

686. The Nature of the Soul After Death Can Never Be Described

687. There Are No Earth-Bound Souls

688. There is No Power Exercised Over People by Evil Souls that Have Passed Away

689. Soul Mates
690. Influence of Holy and Spiritual Souls
691. The Soul Acts
692. The Other World is Within This World
693. The Soul of a Murderer
694. Union in the Next World
695. Death Can Lose Its Sting

696. With Vision to See Blessings of Other World, No One Would Care to Remain in This World

697. Good Souls Enter a State of Being Far Nobler and More Beautiful...

698. The Nature of the Soul

699. All Souls Progress Spiritually in the Next World--Relatives of the Believers Will at Least Partially Attain Kingdom

700. Certain Things Remain a Mystery to Us in Our Present Stage of Development

701. The Prophets Never Revealed What Happens to Us After Death--Belief in God and His Prophet Elicits Spiritual Growth

702. Our Speculations on the Nature of Life After Death Have Little Validity

703. God Can Be Known Only Through His Prophets--Heaven and Hell Are Conditions Within Our Own Beings

704. The Journey of Spiritual Progress is Endless

705. How to "Get to Heaven"--Is Dependent on Two Things

A. Academic and Spiritual
706. Education of Man

707. Education of the Physical and Intellectual, Spiritual and Ethical Aspects of Man

708. Man Said to be Greatest Representative of God

709. Modern Education Lacking in Ability to Produce a Mature Mind

710. Each Should Be Educated According to His Needs and Deserts

711. Education Extended to Prisoners

712. Humankind Are as Children in School, and Prophets Are Their Teachers

713. Learning is the Greatest Bestowal of God
B. Universities and Colleges
714. The Academic Life
715. There is No Bahá'í Curriculum as Yet
716. Three Cardinal Principles
717. Characteristics of Bahá'í College Students

718. Abdu'l-Bahá Enjoins Bahá'ís to Excel All Other Students--Emphasis on Truthfulness

719. Challenge to Persian Students
720. Teaching in Universities and Colleges
721. When Studying at School or University

722. Endowment Land Used for Site of Haziratu'l-Quds Ceases to be Endowment in the Bahá'í Sense

723. National Endowments
724. Local Endowments

725. Endowment Land--There is No Objection to Raising a Temporary Structure

726. Endowment Land to be Regarded as an Investment for Local Assemblies

727. Endowment Property May Be Used for Sports Facilities or to Produce Income for the Work of the Faith

728. Summary of Principles which Should Govern Acceptance of Free Land for Bahá'í Use

A. Family Relationships
729. Family Ties

730. The Family: A Special Kind of Community--Each Member Has Rights and Responsibilities

731. The Family Progresses When There is Unity

732. Bahá'u'lláh Provides Way to Remove Hostility and Dissension from the World

733. It is Important for Man to Raise a Family
734. Keys to Strengthening of Family
735. Mother-in-Law Problem

736. A Truly Bahá'í Home--A Fortress Upon which the Cause Can Rely

737. The Home is an Institution Bahá'u'lláh Has Come to Strengthen and Not to Weaken

738. Preserve Bahá'í Families: Harmony, Unity and Love Highest Ideals in Human Relationships

739. Rights and Prerogatives of Each Member of the Family

740. Violence in the Home

741. Love Can Change Vile, Mean Person into Heavenly Soul

742. Believer Must Be Patient with Non-Bahá'í Spouse, Attract with Loving Kindness, Wisdom, Tact

743. Teaching Relatives
744. Earn Right to Plead on Behalf of Family

745. One Should Not Be Deceptive with Non-Bahá'í Spouse or Parents

746. Duty of Believer to Endeavour to Lead Family to the Faith

747. If Family Members Are Hostile, Avoid Antagonizing Them, Leave Them to Themselves

B. The Relationship Between Husband and Wife
748. Keys to Strengthening of Family

749. Honour and Privilege Ordained for Women: Obedience to Husbands

750. Domination by Husband or Wife Not Right

751. Time When Wife Should Defer to Husband and Time When Husband Should Defer to Wife

752. In Tablet of the World Women and Men Envisaged as Breadwinners

753. Love Between Husband and Wife
754. The Institution of Marriage
755. Husband and Wife as a Single Soul
756. Wife Should Treat Husband with Kindness

757. Tolerate Cruel Actions, Ill Treatment, Demonstrate Loving Kindness

758. Pray to Bahá'u'lláh for Help, Think of Abdu'l-Bahá as Perfect Example

759. Bahá'ís Should Make Almost a Superhuman Effort to Avoid Divorce

C. Ancestors and Descendants

760. Faith of Believer Attracts God's Mercy to Souls of Parents

761. True Believer in Better Position to Intercede for Ancestors

D. The Relationships Between Parents and Children

762. The Most Important of All Duties After the Recognition of God--Due Regard for Rights of Parents

763. If Children Do Not Obey Parents--They Will Not Obey God

764. The Son Must Serve His Father
765. Consultation Between Father and Son

766. Father Must Give Son Advice--Son Must Obey Father

767. Parents Must Be Respected--Should Not Keep Child Back from Serving the Cause

768. If One Must Make Choice Between Service to Bahá'u'lláh or Service to Parents

769. It is a Privilege to Look After Parents
770. Pray for Parents

771. Father Who Fails to Educate His Children Forfeits Rights of Fatherhood

772. Mothers Are Not Necessarily Confined to the Home

773. Underage Child Needs Parental Consent to Pioneer

774. Parents and Children in the Pioneering Field
775. Fasting--Spiritual in Character

776. Observance of the Fast is a Universal Obligation--Bahá'u'lláh Permits Certain Exceptions to Fasting

777. Fasting has a Salutary Effect Both Physically and Spiritually

778. The Doctor's Advice Should Be Sought if There is a Health Problem

779. The Divine Wisdom in Fasting

780. Travellers Are Exempt from Fasting--If One Eats Unconsciously, Fast is Not Broken

781. Fasting in High Latitudes
782. Smoking is a Form of Drinking

783. Observance of Fast When Attending Military School

784. Prayer for the Fast

785. Fear of God and Sense of Shame Protect Man from Unseemly Conduct

786. Teach Children the Fear of God Through Concept of Oneness and the Laws

787. The Knowledge which Will Largely Eliminate Fear

788. Lack of Faith in Immortality is a Cause of Fear, Weakened Will Power and Human Degradation

789. Meaning of the Term "Fear of God"
790. Explaining Fear of God to Children
791. Fear Does Not Solve Problems
792. Overcoming Fear
793. Forget Fears, Teach and Serve the Faith

794. Fear of God--Human Beings Need Element of Fear

A. Nature and Function
795. Purpose of the Nineteen Day Feast
796. The Lord's Supper--The Nineteen Day Feast
797. Abdu'l-Bahá is Present in Heart and Soul

798. Attendance at Nineteen Day Feasts Not Obligatory

799. If Feasts Be Held in Proper Fashion...
800. Prophecies About Feasts

801. Visitors Can Take Part in Consultation, They Cannot Vote

802. Omit Consultative Part of Feast if Non-Bahá'í Appears

803. Voting Rights Cannot Be Removed for Failure to Attend Feast

804. Non-Bahá'í Attendance at Nineteen Day Feast

805. The Nineteen Day Feast for Bahá'ís Exclusively--No Variation from this Principle Permitted

806. Bahá'í Groups, Isolated Believers and Friends Should Observe the Nineteen Day Feast

807. Where Nineteen Day Feast Should Be Held
808. The Owner of the House Must Personally Serve

809. Children Up to Age Fifteen Permitted to Attend Feasts

810. District Nineteen Day Feasts
B. Time for Holding Nineteen Day Feast
811. Time for Holding the Nineteen Day Feast

812. If Feast Clashes with Regular Day for Public Meeting

813. Feast Should Be Held on Prescribed Day Before Sunset

814. Feast Can Be Celebrated During Intercalary Days, Also Month of Fasting

815. In High Latitudes Permissible to Go by the Clock

816. "Most Suitable" Day for Celebrations of the Nineteen Day Feast

C. Programme for the Nineteen Day Feast
817. Devotional Part of Feast
818. Programme for Devotions Outlined

819. Writings which Can Be Read in Spiritual Part of Feast

820. Reading from Writings of the Guardian at Feast in Persia

821. Advisable to Read from Our Own Holy Writings
822. Music at Bahá'í Feasts

823. Advisable Believers Make Use of Hymns, Poems and Chants

824. Instrumental Music May Be Used at Feasts

825. Shoghi Effendi Provided for the Period of Consultation

826. Consultation in the Nineteen Day Feast
827. Selling of Items at the Nineteen Day Feast
828. Firesides More Effective Than Publicity
829. Must Hold Fireside in Home Once in 19 Days

830. Service Once Rendered by Priest is the Service a Bahá'í is Expected to Render Individually to His Religion

831. That Home is a Garden of God

832. Fireside in Home is Example of Individual Goal

833. Must Aid New Believers to Become "True Bahá'ís"--Then Introduce Them to the Community

834. The Holy Spirit Quickens Friends--Must Become Channels for Its Diffusion

A. Contributions-Responsibility of Bahá'ís
835. To Give and to be Generous

836. God Does Not Ask from Any Soul Except According to His Ability

837. Responsibility of Every Bahá'í
838. There Can Be No Limit to One's Contributions
839. Service Every Believer Can Render

840. Commerce, Agriculture and Industries Blessed Many Times

841. Believers Alone Have Bounty of Contributing

842. Should Not Incur Debts for Purpose of Contributing to Fund

B. Those Eligible to Contribute
843. Distinguishing Features of the Cause of God
844. Giving to the Fund is a Spiritual Privilege

845. When a Soul Accepts Bahá'u'lláh He Becomes a Co-Worker in the Cause of God

846. Those Who Openly Proclaim Recognition of Bahá'u'lláh Permitted to Contribute

847. They Must Create a Sense of Belonging

848. Contributions from Children of Non-Bahá'ís or in Case One Parent is Bahá'í

849. Selling Items for the Benefit of the Bahá'í Fund

850. It is Not Proper for a Bahá'í Institution to Sponsor a Fund-Raising Sale Open to Public

851. Auctions Among Bahá'ís--Contributing to the Fund is a Spiritual Responsibility

852. Holding of Raffles

853. Guidelines Towards Establishing a Business Venture Owned by Bahá'ís

854. Reasons for Not Accepting Donations from Non-Bahá'ís for Administration of the Faith

855. Guidelines for Accepting Funds from Governmental and Other Non-Bahá'í Sources

856. Should Recipient of Public Charity Contribute to the Bahá'í Fund?

C. The Treasurer and the Spiritual Assembly

857. Trustworthiness--A Prime Requisite for Those Responsible for the Funds

858. Great Responsibility of Members of the National Spiritual Assembly-- Should Require Two Signatures for Withdrawal of Funds

859. The Treasurer of an Assembly Should Never Commingle His Own Funds and Those of the Faith

860. Local Assembly of a Large Community Might Appoint a Committee to Assist Treasurer

861. Treasury Committees, Functions of
862. National Treasury Committee

863. The Treasurer is Officer in Charge, but All National Spiritual Assembly Members Are Responsible

864. Teach Trustworthiness Through Writings--Explain to Individuals that They Will Be Held Responsible for Money They Handle

865. The National Spiritual Assembly Should Require Annual Audit of Treasuer's Accounts

866. Some Guidelines for Treasurers

867. Desirable for Assembly to Maintain Financial Reserve

868. Duty of the National Assembly Not to Allow National Interests to be Jeopardized by Individual Considerations

869. Assembly Should Neither Feel Embarrassed nor Ashamed in Turning to the Friends

870. The General and National Interests of the Cause Take Precedence Over the Local Ones--But It May Be Expedient to Develop Local Fund First

871. Assembly Obligated to Advise Believers of All Funds--International, Continental, National and Local

872. Contributions Can Be Sent Direct to Haifa
873. Continental Fund

874. Pledges Can Be a Useful Means of Encouraging Contributions

875. Friends in Mass Teaching Areas Should Know Their Blessings and Responsibilities

876. "Bring and Buy" Meetings

877. Assembly May Sell Contributions in Kind Through a Professional Auctioneer

878. It is Not Permissible to Impose a Tax or an Assessment on Local Spiritual Assemblies

879. Local Spiritual Assembly Decides for Itself How to Use Funds--National Spiritual Assembly Can Only Make a Suggestion

880. Soliciting Funds from Other Countries

881. Individual Bahá'ís Free to Contribute to Projects in Any Country They Wish

D. Earmarked Funds

882. Purpose of Earmarking Funds Should Not Be Defeated

883. Earmarked Funds for Specific Purchases or Projects

884. When Earmarked Contribution is Impractical or Unwise...

885. Proceeds from Sale of Property Purchased with Earmarked Funds Retain Same Earmarking

886. The Proper Accounting for Earmarked Funds is Very Important

887. Donor Has No Right to Change Earmarked Purpose Unless the Assembly Accepts the Request to Do So

888. The Assembly Should Try to Preserve Real Value of Funds in Its Care-- Especially True of Earmarked Funds

889. Often It is Better that the Friends Do Not Restrict Funds

890. Care to be Taken Not to Violate Right of Earmarking--Earmarked Contribution Should Be Over and Above Assembly's Allocation to a Fund

891. Confidentiality of Believers' Contributions, Earmarked or Otherwise, Must Be Respected

A. The Greatest Name

892. The Greatest Name is the Name of Comfort, Protection, etc.

893. Bahá'ís May Greet Each Other with "Allah-u-Abha"

894. The Greatest Name is the Name of Bahá'u'lláh

895. The Greatest Name is an Invocation and a Symbol of Our Faith

896. Use of Greatest Name Symbol--Not Appropriate on Articles Put to Common Use

897. Guidelines on the Use of the Symbols of the Greatest Name on Stationery and in Paintings

898. Stickers, Use of Not Encouraged
899. Tombstones Please Refer to No. 672.
900. Emblems

901. Believer Can Manufacture and Sell Items Using the Greatest Name

902. No Prohibition Against Use of Greatest Name, Names of the Manifestations or Names of Central Figures in Songs

903. Reproducing Greatest Names on Jewellery Commercially

904. Picture of the Greatest Name May Be Destroyed, if Necessary

905. Reciting the Greatest Name 95 Times Daily

906. The Greatest Name or Picture of Abdu'l-Bahá Should Be Placed in a Dignified Position

B. Ringstone Emblem and Jewellery

907. Ringstone Emblem is Form of the Greatest Name--Use of on Jewelry

908. Bahá'ís Not Required to Wear Ringstone
909. Ringstone Inscription Explained
910. The Significance of the Stars
911. Greatest Name--An Invocation
912. Haziratu'l-Quds--Its Main Function
913. Dancing Not Appropriate in Haziratu'l-Quds
914. Local and National Haziratu'l-Quds

915. Principles that Govern Acceptance of Gifts of Land

916. National Spiritual Assembly Should Budget Annually for Maintenance of Properties

917. Responsibility of National Spiritual Assembly to Maintain and Improve Properties--Individual Bahá'ís Can Help in Many Ways

918. Purchase and Sale of Haziratu'l-Quds

919. National Haziratu'l-Quds Need Not Serve Needs of Local Spiritual Assembly--Preferable that National Secretary Live in Haziratu'l-Quds

920. The National Spiritual Assembly Must Operate from the National Haziratu'l-Quds--Eventually, Full Time Service Will Be Required of the National Secretary

921. Preferable Arrangement and Bahá'í Norm that the National Secretary Live in the Haziratu'l-Quds--Not to be Considered a "Right of Office"

922. A District Haziratu'l-Quds Serves the Local Community as a Gathering Place for Bahá'ís of Wider Area

A. Spiritual and Physical Healing
923. Consult Competent Physicians When Ill
924. Prayers for Spiritual and Material Healing

925. The Greatest Name Influences Both Spiritual and Physical Matters

926. Two Ways of Healing Sickness

927. Two Processes of Healing--Prayer Alone Not Sufficient

928. Spiritual and Material Healing Essential and Complementary

929. Physical Healing Must Be Reinforced by Spiritual Healing

930. Healing of Illness--There is No Such Thing as "Bahá'í Healers"

931. To Associate Such Things with the Cause Ultimately Injures It

932. Not a Unique Phenomenon

933. To Be Able to Help Another Soul Who is Suffering

934. Try Not to Have the Faith Identified with Such Things

935. Should Not Become Healer
936. Healing by the Holy Spirit
937. Visiting the Sick

938. However Critical and Hopeless Consult and Follow Treatment of Competent Physician

939. Both Spiritual and Physical Forces Needed to Secure Speedy Recovery

940. Physical Ailments Have No Effect on the Soul

941. Bahá'ís Must Avoid Depleting Their Forces and Suffering Breakdowns

942. The Supreme Need of the World Today is for Spiritual Healing--Bahá'ís Are the Leaven that Must Leaven the Lump

943. Some Illnesses Have to Do with the Spiritual Development of the One Affected or of the Loved Ones

944. Physical Pain is Necessary to Existence and is Unavoidable--In Every Suffering One Can Find a Meaning and a Wisdom

945. Decree of Bahá'u'lláh Consult Competent Doctor

946. It is the Responsibility of the Believers to Look After the Sick

B. Mental Illness

947. Little is Known About the Mind and Its Workings

948. Mental Illness Does Not Affect Our Spirit or Our Inner Relation to God

949. Disease of Two Kinds--Madness Can Be Cured Through Prayer

950. Some Serious Deficiencies, Physical or Mental, Can Incapacitate One to Contract Marriage

951. No Objection to One Seeing a Psychiatrist
952. Bahá'ís Should Not Become Healers

953. The Mind Can Be Helped by Professionals, but the Soul is Not Aided by Psychotherapy

954. The Science of the Mind is in Its Relative Infancy--Therapy of Mental Disorders is Advancing

955. Mental Illness is Not Spiritual

956. Bahá'ís Should Not Take a Defeatist Attitude Toward Mental Illnesses

957. Psychiatry
C. Doctors

958. Physician is Blessed Who Heals in the Name of God

959. To Seek Medical Treatment and Obey the Doctor is a Divine Ordinance

960. One Must Obey Command of God and Submit to Medical Opinion

961. The Science of Medicine is Extremely Useful
962. The Sick Must Refer to a Skilled Doctor
963. The Physician Has Two Powers

964. When Giving Treatment, Turn to the Blessed Beauty, Bahá'u'lláh

965. It is Imperative to Consult a Doctor Even if One is an Eminent Physician

966. God Alone Has the Power to Give True Healing--Many Men Have Died of the Very Disease of Their Specialty

967. Service is Prayer

968. Doctors Versed in Medical Science Can Treat Case Better Than Loving Mothers

969. Powers Released by Bahá'u'lláh Destined to Reveal Themselves Through Instrumentality of His Followers

970. Doctors Should Not Work on 9 Holy Days
971. Corrupt Practices
D. Illnesses and Medical Practices

972. Medical Science Will Greatly Improve with the Spiritual Awakening of Man

973. Surrogate Mothers and Artificial Insemination

974. Artificial Production of Life
975. Conception Without Male Sperm
976. Hypnotism
977. Auto-Suggestion or Hypnotism
978. Cancer
979. Cancer--Not Stated It is a Spiritual Disease
980. Chiropractic
981. Circumcision

982. Reference to Certain Aspects of Medical Profession Not Found in Sacred Writings

983. Heart/Kidney Transplant

984. Organ Donor for Parts of the Body Including the Eyes

985. Euthanasia (Mercy Killing)

986. When Dissecting Human Body, It Must Be Treated with Respect

987. Life Support
988. Telepathy

989. Before Serious Operation Consult More Than One Physician

990. Protect Your Health by Sleeping Enough

991. Take Care of Health as a Necessary Means of Serving the Cause

992. Vaccination
993. Vivisection

994. Torture of Animals--When the Hearts of Men Change Medical Research Will Eliminate as Much Suffering of Animals as Possible

995. During Vivisection Animal Must Be Well Anaesthetized

996. Sins Are Potent Cause of Physical Ailments
E. Physical Education
997. Material Education

998. The Essentiality of Taking Proper Care of Child from the Early Days of His Life

999. Give Them Advantage of Every Useful Kind of Knowledge

1000. Training and Development of Physical Body Ensures Strength and Growth

1001. There Should Be a Program for the Development of Youth All Over the World

1002. Playing Games
F. Diet and Nutrition

1003. Treat Disease Through Diet, but Do Not Neglect Medical Care

1004. One Course Meal More Pleasing in the Sight of God

1005. Mother's Milk Normally is Best for the Child

1006. Abstinence from Eating Animal Flesh
1007. The Four Canine Teeth in Man

1008. The Báb Has Said that Bahá'ís Must Develop Medical Science So that Illness May Be Healed by Foods

1009. Medical Science is Only in Its Infancy
1010. Should One Kill Animals for Food?

1011. Many Ailments that Affect Man Also Afflict Animals--Animals Heal Themselves with Food and Aliments

1012. Eating of Pork is Not Forbidden

1013. The Body is Like a Horse that Carries the Personality and Spirit

1014. The Prophets of God Are Not Immune from Things which Men Suffer

1015. No Specific School of Nutrition or Medicine Has Been Associated with the Bahá'í Teachings

1016. We Have Guidelines, Indications and Principles which Experts Will Carefully Study in the Future

1017. Believers Should Seek Help and Advice of Experts--The Teachings Say Nothing About Eating Meat or Fish


1018. Two Holy Days When Work is Not Prohibited--The Significance of the Day of the Covenant Explained

1019. Suspension of Bahá'í Administrative Activities on Bahá'í Holy Days

1020. Bahá'í Radio Should Refrain from Work on Nine Holy Days--Volunteers May Present Special Programs

1021. Business Places Owned by Bahá'ís Must Close During the Nine Holy Days --In the Bahá'í Temple Minimal Essential Services May Be Provided

1022. Exceptions Can Be Made When Contract Demands Service

1023. Gift Giving is Not an Integral Part of Any of the Bahá'í Holy Days-- nor is There a Prohibition

1024. Proper Time to Hold Meetings of Commemoration

1025. Naw-Ruz

1026. Naw-Ruz Has Nothing to Do with the Nineteen Day Feast

1027. Naw-Ruz Should Be Celebrated According to the Vernal Equinox

1028. Naw-Ruz Cards

1029. Celebration of the Christian Holidays Among the Bahá'ís Should Be Discontinued

1030. Holy Days Are Appropriate Occasions to Found Institutions and Projects for Social and Economic Development


1031. Payment of Huqúqu'llah Purifies One's Property, Attracts Prosperity and Blessings

1032. A Bounty which Shall Remain with Every Soul in Every World of God

1033. Moderation Versus Extravagance

1034. Solicitation of the Huqúqu'llah is Not Permitted

1035. Trustworthiness in Huqúqu'llah--On Acquiring 100 Mithqals of Gold, 19 Belong Unto God

1036. Huqúqu'llah Designated as an Institution of the Cause--Calculation of Equivalent of One Mithqal of Gold

1037. Promulgation of the Huqúqu'llah a Responsibility of the Spiritual Assemblies--The Universal House of Justice Determines How Huqúqu'llah Can Be Used

1038. Personal Accounting Should Separate Huqúqu'llah from Contributions-- Huqúqu'llah Comes First

1039. As a Token of Mercy, Cost of Burial and Debts Take Precedence Over Huqúqu'llah

1040. The Trusteeship of the Huqúqu'llah--Cannot Be Turned Over to Every Person

1041. The Huqúq is Not Payable on Entire Possessions Each Year

1042. Huqúq is Not Payable on Agricultural Tools and Equipment

1043. Value of Residence, Furniture and Tools of Trade Exempt from Huqúqu'llah of Heir

1044. Payment of the Huqúqu'llah is a Binding Spiritual Obligation--Conduces to Prosperity and Honour, Ensures Attainment of True Happiness

A. Institutions Defined
1045. Definition of Institution

1046. Clarification of the Institutions Attendant to the Guardianship

B. The Guardianship

1047. The Guardianship--Acceptance of--Day that Will Not Be Followed by Night

1048. The Word "Guardianship" Used with Various Meanings

1049. Prerogatives and Duties Invested in the Guardian Are of Three Kinds

1050. Infallibility of the Guardian is Not for Individual Believers to Limit or to Judge

1051. Authoritative Interpretation of the Teachings is the Exclusive Right of the Guardian After Abdu'l-Bahá

1052. The Distinction Between Authoritative Interpretation and Individual Understanding

1053. God Ordained, in This Day, that Guidance Has Been Vouchsafed to Man Through Institutions

1054. Future Guardians

1055. The Guardian is Assured the Guidance of Both Bahá'u'lláh and The Báb

1056. He is the Interpreter of the Word: Divine Truth is Relative

1057. Guardianship Does Not Lose Significance nor Position Because There is No Living Guardian

1058. Station of Guardianship Cannot Be Claimed Ere the Expiration of 1000 Years

C. The Universal House of Justice

1059. The Universal House of Justice Called into Being by the Author of the Faith

1060. Apex of Bahá'u'lláh's World Order
1061. Legislative Functions
1062. Process of Legislating

1063. Has General Functions of Protecting and Administering the Cause

1064. Infallibility of the Universal House of Justice is Not Dependent on the Presence of the Guardian

1065. The Universal House of Justice Has Conferred Infallibility

1066. The Process of Deducing Subsidiary Laws from the Original Text is the Right of the House of Justice

1067. In the World Order of Bahá'u'lláh Certain Functions Are Reserved to Certain Institutions

1068. The Decisions and Laws Made by the Universal House of Justice Are Inspired and Confirmed by the Holy Spirit--This Exclusive Authority Will Preclude Errors of Past Dispensations

1069. The Strong Cord to which All Must Cling is the Covenant

1070. The Universal House of Justice is the "Last Refuge of a Tottering Civilization"

1071. The Chosen Successors of Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá

1072. The Universal House of Justice Bears Responsibility for Executive and Judicial Functions as Well as Legislative

1073. Appointment of a Successor to Shoghi Effendi or More Hands of the Cause Not Possible

D. Supreme Tribunal
1074. Factor in Establishing the Lesser Peace

1075. The Supreme Tribunal Will Fulfil Task of Establishing Universal Peace

1076. The Mission of the Supreme Tribunal is to Prevent War

1077. International Executive--A Step Leading to Bahá'í World Government

E. Hands of the Cause of God
1078. The Institution of "The Learned"

1079. The Hands of the Cause Not Heirs of Any Name or Title

1080. Tablet Revealed for the Hands of the Cause
1081. Auxiliary Institution of Guardianship
1082. Functions of the Hands of the Cause

1083. The Authority of Expulsion and Reinstatement Exercised by the Hands of the Cause

1084. Prerogative and Obligation of the Hands of the Cause to Consult with Boards of Counsellors and National Assemblies

1085. Inappropriate for Them to Serve on Administrative Institutions

1086. The Rank and Position of the Hands of the Cause of God

F. International Teaching Centre

1087. The International Teaching Centre Establishment and Duties

G. Continental Boards of Counsellors
1088. Duties of Continental Boards of Counsellors

1089. Terms of Office of the Continental Counsellors

1090. Relationship of Counsellors to National Spiritual Assemblies

1091. Relationship Between Boards of Counsellors and National Spiritual Assemblies

1092. The Counsellors and Auxiliary Board Members Are Free from Administrative Responsibilities

1093. The Counsellors and the National Spiritual Assemblies Have One Common Objective

1094. The Counsellors Follow in the Footsteps of the Hands of the Cause

1095. The Functions of the Counsellors and the Spiritual Assemblies Are Complementary

1096. The Proper Functioning of Society Requires Preservation of Ranks and Classes

1097. Pride and Self-Aggrandisement Are Among the Most Deadly of Sins

1098. Differentials of Rank Meant to Canalize, Not Obstruct the Work of the Cause

1099. Counsellors Should Give Wide Latitude to Auxiliary Board Members in Carrying Out Their Work

1100. Assemblies Plan and Direct the Work--The Plans Should Be Well Known to Counsellors and Auxiliary Board Members

1101. The Counsellors May Report Misconduct of Individuals to the National Spiritual Assembly Through Board Member

1102. Every Institution of This Divinely Created Order is One More Refuge for a Tottering Society

H. Auxiliary Boards for Protection and Propagation

1103. Two Auxiliary Boards with Distinct But Complementary Functions Established by the Guardian

1104. Areas for the Protection Board and Propagation Board Are Not Necessarily the Same

1105. In Exceptional Circumstances One Board Member Might Cover an Area

1106. Advisable that Auxiliary Board Member Reside in Area which He Serves

1107. Many of the Functions of Members of the Two Boards and Assemblies Are Held in Common

1108. The Members of the Boards Should Encourage the Friends and Assemblies to be Unified

1109. Auxiliary Boards Will Stimulate and Help Teaching Work

1110. Auxiliary Board Members Free to Have Direct Contact with Individuals and Local Assemblies

1111. The Friends Should Feel Free to Refer to Either Auxiliary Board Member

1112. Protection Board Members' Responsibilities

1113. Moral Problems Should Be Dealt with Only When They Arise

1114. Propagation Board Members' Responsibilities

1115. Members of Auxiliary Boards Should Be Freed from Administrative Responsibilities

1116. Auxiliary Board Member Must Decide What to Report to the Local Spiritual Assembly--Generally, the More Freely Information is Shared Between Institutions, the Better

1117. Board Member Should Feel Responsible Before God in the Discharge of His Responsibilities

I. Auxiliary Board Member Assistants

1118. Appointment of Auxiliary Board Members' Assistants

1119. Primary Aim of Assistants is to Stimulate and Assist the Believers

1120. An Assistant May Serve Two Board Members

1121. The House of Justice Prefers that Assistants Not Retire from Administrative Work

1122. Assistant Functions Individually, Does Not Function in Relation to National Assembly, Should Foster Warm Relationship Between Local Assembly and Board Member

1123. Principle of Confidentiality Applies to Assistant Who is Assembly Member --Most Subjects Dealt with Are Not Confidential

J. Relationships Between Counsellors, Auxiliary Board Members, Assistants, National and Local Assemblies and Committees

1124. Authority and Direction Flow from the Assemblies--Counsellors, Auxiliary Board Members and Assistants Advise, Stimulate and Assist

1125. Auxiliary Board Member May Meet with Local Spiritual Assembly Occasionally

1126. Relationship Between Auxiliary Board Members and Local Assemblies Should Not Be Hampered by Regulations

1127. Problems with Board Members to be Reported to Counsellors

1128. Counsellors Need Not Consult with National Spiritual Assembly About Appointments

1129. Gatherings of Counsellors, Board Members, National Assembly Members and Committee Members Encouraged

1130. Auxiliary Board Members and Committees Should Exchange Information

1131. Board Member Reports and Recommendations Are Sent to Counsellors, Not to National Assembly or Committees

1132. National Spiritual Assemblies Should Refer to Protection Board Member for Protection Matters

1133. Administrative Institutions May Request Auxiliary Board Member to Perform Certain Tasks

1134. Auxiliary Board Members Teach, Advise on, Observe and Report on Administration

1135. It is Not Necessary to Inform National Assembly When Board Members Are Working with a Local Spiritual Assembly

1136. National Assemblies Should Avail Themselves of Services of Auxiliary Board Members and Their Assistants


1137. Leave Granted to be Instructed in Divers Tongues

1138. The Utmost Importance of an Auxiliary Language

1139. Man's Speech is the Revealer of His Heart
1140. Esperanto
1141. The Present Need of an Auxiliary Language
1142. Esperanto Will Spread to a Certain Degree
1143. The Persian Tongue
A. Introduction

1144. Obedience to the Laws of Bahá'u'lláh Will Impose Hardships and Tests in Individual Cases

1145. Certain Laws Are Universally and Vitally Applicable at the Present Time

1146. Laws Governing Physical and Spiritual Lives

1147. It is Difficult to Follow the Laws of Bahá'u'lláh

1148. Punishments Decided by the House of Justice

1149. Laws Should Be Obeyed But Not Through Fear of Punishment

1150. We Must Obey Ordinances, Even Though at First We See No Need for Them

1151. One Cannot Continue Drinking As a Bahá'í--Should Be Made Aware Gradually

1152. Unfair to Require New Applicants for Membership to First Accept All Laws of the Faith

1153. Difference Between Advice (Exhortation, Counsel) and a Binding Command

B. Abortion

1154. Abortion Merely to Prevent the Birth of an Unwanted Child is Strictly Forbidden in the Cause

1155. Surgical Operation and Abortion--The Soul Appears at Conception

C. Adultery

1156. Faith Recognizes Sex Impulse But Condemns Its Illegitimate Expression

1157. Sex Relationships Outside of Marriage Not Permissible

1158. Sexual Intercourse Permissible Only Between Man and Wife

1159. Adultery Retards Progress of the Soul
D. Birth Control

1160. Question of Birth Control Not Specifically Answered in Writings

1161. Population Explosion, No Reference in Writings: Time of Appearance of Human Soul, etc.

1162. When Exercised to Prevent Procreation of Any Children

1163. Husband and Wife to Decide How Many Children to Have

1164. Vasectomy to Avoid Having Unwanted Children Not Permitted if It Results in Permanent Sterility

1165. Tubal Ligation

1166. Should Take into Consideration Availability, Reliability and Reversibility of Operation

1167. No Reference in Writings Regarding Contraception to Prevent Transmission of Undesirable Traits

1168. In-Vitro Fertilization and Surrogate Mothers

1169. Individuals Must Decide Hazards of Contraceptive Agents at Present: Permanent Sterilization

1170. Letter to a Physician Specializing in Obstetrics and Gynecology

E. Alcohol, Drugs and Tobacco
1. Alcohol

1171. Both Light and Strong Drinks Prohibited Unless Prescribed by a Doctor

1172. In the Kitáb-i-Aqdas It is Forbidden to Take Anything that Deranges the Mind

1173. Drinking Forbidden, No Excuse to Touch It Even in Plum Pudding

1174. Cake Flavours and Extracts

1175. Strictly Prohibited Foods Flavoured with Alcoholic Liquors

1176. Alcohol for Home Remedies, No Instruction Allowing Its Use

1177. The Serving of Alcoholic Drinks by Bahá'ís and Bahá'í Institutions

1178. A Business Partnership Between a Bahá'í and Non-Bahá'ís

1179. Assembly's Role Toward Those Who Continue to Drink

1180. Alcoholism and Alcoholics Anonymous

1181. Bahá'í Advertising Agent Should Use Wisdom in Avoiding the Promotion of Intoxicating Drinks

1182. The Right of the Non-Bahá'í Parent--The Serving of Champagne

2. Drugs
1183. Hallucinogens, a Form of Intoxication

1184. The Use of Marijuana, LSD and Other Psychedelic Products

1185. Peyote

1186. Opium Destroys the Conscience, the Mind and the Perceptions

1187. Dealing in Heroin and Other Narcotics Forbidden

1188. The Renouncing of Tobacco, Alcohol and Opium--Purity and Sanctity Should Distinguish the People of Baha

3. Tobacco
1189. Smoking is Discouraged, But Not Forbidden

1190. Smoking Has Nothing to Do with Firmness in the Covenant

1191. To New Bahá'ís, We Should Not Stress Giving Up Smoking

1192. Smoking by Degrees Injurious

1193. Guidelines for Individuals and Assemblies About Tobacco Smoking

F. Crime, Criminals and Prisoners
1194. Believers Charged with Criminal Offences

1195. Bahá'í Institutions Cannot Enforce Criminal Laws at Present--Such Cases Are Handled in Civil Court

1196. Rehabilitation of Criminals Left to Experts in that Field

1197. Administrative Action in Cases Involving Disobedience to Civil Law

1198. Penalty for Arson--Laws for a More Evolved Society

1199. Capital Punishment and the Criminally Insane

1200. Suicide is Forbidden in the Cause
G. Gambling
1201. The Sale or Purchasing of Lottery Tickets
1202. Horse Racing, Betting and Raffles

1203. Betting on Football Games, Bingo and the Like

1204. Bingo and Other Games of Chance for the Fund

H. Chastity and Sex Education

1205. Sex Education Requires Wisdom and Good Judgment on the Part of Parents

1206. Bahá'í Youth Should Stand Out Against the Laxity and Depravity of a Permissive Society

1207. The Individual Believer in Accordance with His Prayerful Understanding of the Writings Should Determine His Course of Conduct

1208. Bahá'ís Should Not Hesitate to Seek Advice from Assemblies When They Feel the Need and Must Learn Through Study and Prayer to Obtain a Clearer Vision of Their Mission

1209. One Must Learn to Control Animal Impulses, Not Be a Slave to Them

1210. Kissing in Modern Society is Detrimental to Morals

1211. Bahá'ís Must Set the Example and Lead the Way to a True Human Standard of Life

1212. Chastity Implies Before Marriage Absolutely Chaste, After Marriage Absolutely Faithful to One's Chosen Companion

1213. Bahá'í Youth Should Study the Teachings on Chastity for Guidance in Deciding which Intimacies Are Permissible and which Are Not

1214. Youth Should Be Taught Self-Control

1215. Chastity Should Be Strictly Practiced by Both Sexes

1216. Chastity is One of the Most Challenging Concepts in This Permissive Age

1217. Children Out of Wedlock

1218. In Sexual Morality People Often Stumble and Fall Short of the Ideal-- The Spiritual Assembly Should Act as a Loving Father Rather Than a Judge

1219. The Institutions Should Adopt Such Programs as Will Deepen the Believers in Their Understanding as to How to Attain to the High Standards of Spotless Chastity Inculcated by Bahá'u'lláh

1220. Masturbation
I. Homosexuality
1221. Acts of Immorality
1222. Homosexuality and Transsexuality

1223. Through Advice, Help of Doctors, and Prayer, Can Overcome This Handicap

1224. Bahá'í Law Protects and Strengthens Marriage

1225. The Question Should Not Be if a Practicing Homosexual Can Be a Bahá'í, But as Such Can He Overcome His Problem Through the Teachings

1226. Recognizing the Divine Origin of the Sex Impulse in Man, Religion Teaches It Must Be Controlled

1227. We Are Assured of the Guidance of God When We Make an Effort to Obey Him

1228. One Must Make an Effort to Resist Wayward Impulses When They Arise by Turning to the Sacred Writings to Divert One's Thoughts

1229. A Homosexual Relationship Subverts the Purpose of Human Life

1230. Homosexuality, Immorality and Adultery Are Forbidden in the Faith

J. Laws of Marriage
1. Parental Consent

1231. Knowledge of Character Responsibility of Two Parties and Parents

1232. Must Become Thoroughly Acquainted with Characters of Each Other

1233. Law Requiring Parental Consent Should Encourage Young People to Consider Marriage Seriously

1234. Consent Required of Parents for Adults, for Second Marriages, for Bahá'ís or Non-Bahá'ís

1235. The Law of Parental Consent is to Strengthen Family Relationships

1236. Consent of Parents Law of Great Importance Affecting the Foundation of Human Society

1237. Consent of All Living Parents Places a Grave Responsibility on Each Parent

1238. Parents May Seek Advice of Spiritual Assembly, But Decision Rests with the Parents

1239. The Opposition of Family Members Other Than Parents Does Not Affect Validity of the Marriage

1240. Marriage to Non-Bahá'í, Consent of Parents of Both Parties Required

1241. The Child May Ask Parents to Reconsider--May Request Assistance of Assembly

1242. Consent of Parents Often Withheld for Reasons of Bigotry

1243. If Parents Are Alive, Consent Must Be Obtained

1244. Circumstances Under which Parental Consent for Bahá'í Marriage Not Required

1245. Withdrawal from the Faith in Order to Evade Law of Bahá'u'lláh is Not Possible for True Believer

1246. Parents Give Consent to Marriage, Not to a Bahá'í Religious Ceremony

1247. Every Reasonable Avenue of Search Must Be Exhausted to Find Parent-- The Responsible Assembly Must Be Satisfied This Has Been Done

1248. One May Ask Others to Approach Parent on His or Her Behalf

1249. Marriages Are Supposed to Promote Unity and Harmony--Alienated Parent and Child Might Be Brought Together

1250. Summary of Requirements for Adopted Children in Respect to Consent

1251. Adopted Children and the Special Significance of Their Relationship with the Natural Parents

1252. Uniform Adoption Law

1253. Duty of Assembly to Ascertain if Consent is Freely Given. It is Desirable to Have Signed Consent, is Not Requirement Under Law

1254. If Parents Do Not Name Future Spouse in Letter of Consent

2. Bahá'í Engagement
1255. First You Must Select One

1256. Period of Engagement and Announcement of Engagement

1257. If Both Parties Are Persian Engagement Should Not Exceed 95 Days

1258. The Ninety-Five Days Should Commence When the Two Parties Have Been Betrothed

1259. The Breaking of an Engagement Does Not Violate Bahá'í Law

1260. It is Unlawful to Announce a Marriage Earlier Than 95 Days Before Wedding

1261. It is Unlawful to Become Engaged to a Girl Before She Attains Maturity

3. Bahá'í Marriage

1262. The Bahá'í Teachings Raise Marriage to the Status of a Divine Institution; However, There is a Small Section of Humanity Who Should Not Marry...

1263. The Institution of Marriage as Conceived and Established by Bahá'u'lláh Constitutes the Foundation of Social Life

1264. The Physical Aspect of Marital Union is Subordinate to the Moral and Spiritual Purposes and Functions

1265. Marriage Between Two Bahá'ís Can Be a Potent Force in the Lives of Others

1266. Bahá'í Union Must Be a True Relationship that Will Endure

1267. Moral Duty to Marry But Marriage is Not an Obligation

1268. Bahá'u'lláh Has Urged Marriage as the Natural and Rightful Way of Life

1269. The Bahá'í Faith Does Not Contemplate Any Form of "Trial Marriage"

1270. Regarding Couples Living Together Without Being Married

1271. The Basic Difference Between the Two Categories of Relationships

1272. Faith Accepts in Certain Cases Unions which Are "Immoral But Accepted" by Society in which the People Live

1273. Legalizing Existing Situation Does Not Require Bahá'í Marriage

1274. Difference Between Companionate Marriage and Common Law Marriage

1275. Companionate Marriage and Flagrantly Immoral Relationships

1276. Violation of Marriage Law, Ascertain if Bahá'í Informed of Requirements

1277. Incorrect Information Given by Assembly

1278. Bahá'ís Ignorant of Law in a Different Category Altogether

1279. Be Patient and Forbearing in Application of Laws to Indigenous People: Must Not Pry into People's Personal Lives

1280. Bigamy Not Permitted

1281. Summary of Bahá'í Requirements Concerning Marriages with Followers of Other Religions

1282. Mixed Marriages (i.e., Bahá'í and Non-Bahá'í)

1283. Roman Catholic Marriage Requirements with Non-Catholics

1284. In Reality No Individual Performs the Marriage Ceremony and if for Any Reason Non-Bahá'í Refuses to Recite Verse, Bahá'í Cannot Marry that Person

1285. Marriage of Bahá'í to Atheist
1286. Marriage by Proxy

1287. Hindu Ceremony is Possible for Bahá'í, Provided...

1288. Inter-Racial Marriage
1289. Marriage Between Relatives
1290. Marriage Ceremony for Two Non-Bahá'ís
1291. The "So-Called" Marriage Tablet

1292. Wedding Plans Should Be Left Entirely in the Hands of the Bride and Groom

1293. Believers Should Not Attend Weddings of Bahá'ís Marrying Contrary to Bahá'í Law

1294. The Compulsory Part of a Bahá'í Wedding is the Pledge of Marriage in the Presence of Two Assembly Witnesses

1295. When a Bahá'í Marries a Non-Bahá'í Both Ceremonies Can Be Held in the Place of Worship of Another Religion, if Requested, and Provided that...

1296. Witnesses Can Be Any Two Trustworthy People Acceptable to Assembly: Makes Possible for Lone Pioneer to Have Bahá'í Marriage in a Remote Post

1297. Two Essential Obligations Regarding Education of Children

1298. Bahá'í Ceremony Should Be as Simple as Possible, No Rituals

1299. Meaning of Consummation of Marriage

1300. Consummation of Marriage Must Take Place Within Twenty-Four Hours of Bahá'í Marriage Ceremony

1301. Reporting Bahá'í Marriage: Individual Only Acts for Assembly

K. Divorce

1302. Attitude of Present-Day Society Towards Divorce

1303. There Are No Grounds for Divorce in the Faith--Divorce Should Only Be Considered if There is a Strong "Aversion" to One's Partner

1304. Youth Should Be So Deepened in the Teachings that the Thought of Divorce Will Be Abhorrent to Them

1305. The Party Who is the Cause of Divorce Will Become Victim of Formidable Calamities

1306. The Friends Must Strictly Refrain from Divorce

1307. Divorce is Conditional Upon the Approval and Permission of the Spiritual Assembly

1308. Should Think of Future of Children

1309. Divorce Concerns Children's Entire Future and Their Attitude Towards Marriage

1310. One May Discover He Has Not Purchased Either Freedom or Happiness

1311. Cannot Use the Cause or Service to It as Reason for Divorce

1312. Every Effort Should Be Made to Salvage Marriage--In Case of Pioneers, It is Even More Important

1313. Bahá'í Family Should Be Preserved

1314. One Year of Waiting Whether Bahá'í When Married or Not

1315. If Divorce is Illegal Within a Country, Bahá'ís Are Bound by Law of the Country

1316. If One Party is Mentally Ill

1317. Bahá'ís Who Intend to Divorce Must Consult with Local or National Assembly

1318. The Believers Should Know that Although Divorce is Permitted in Bahá'í Law, It is Condemned

1319. The Assembly Should Determine that Irreconcilable Antipathy Exists Before Setting the Date of the Beginning of the Year of Waiting

1320. Procedure for an Assembly When Application for Divorce is Received

1321. The Setting of the Date of the Beginning of the Year of Patience is Not Automatic

1322. Beginning of the Year of Patience Normally Commences When Parties Notify Assembly of their Separation with Intent to Divorce

1323. Duties of Assembly or Committee on Divorce Procedures

1324. Dating During the Year of Patience

1325. Summary--Relating to the Fixing of the Date of Separation

1326. It is Not Possible to Shorten the Period of Waiting

1327. The Assembly is Obliged to Consider Application for a Year of Waiting

1328. During Period of Legal Separation Dating in the Spirit of Courtship is Outside Bounds of Propriety

1329. Parties May Withdraw Their Application for Divorce at Any Time During the Year of Waiting

1330. Assembly Should Not Interfere into Marital Affairs Until Believers Bring Their Problems to the Assembly

1331. There is No Law to Remove Voting Rights for Obtaining Civil Divorce Before the Year of Waiting Terminates

1332. Annulment or Divorce
1333. Refund of Marriage Expenses

1334. Not Wise to Announce New Marriage Plans Before Divorce is Final

1335. Guidance Regarding Financial Support in Divorce Cases

1336. It is Preferable that Couple Should Amicably Agree on the Custody of the Children--The Husband is Obligated to Support Wife and Children Until Divorce is Granted and He Has Continuing Obligation to Support His Children

1337. Wife Support During Year of Patience and After Divorce--Assembly Should Encourage Husband to Honor His Responsibilities in Paying Required Support Money

1338. No Husband Should Batter His Wife

1339. The Best Remedy for Hate is Love, as Hate is the Absence of Love

1340. The Standard which Must Govern the Conduct of Believers Toward Each Other is Love

1341. We Must Love God and Thus Love for All Men Becomes Possible

1342. The Kind of Love Every Believer Should Cultivate

1343. Abdu'l-Bahá Explained the Meaning of Bahá'u'lláh's Words Regarding Love of Humanity

1344. Spiritual Relationships Are Far More Important Than Rules and Regulations

1345. The People of the World Need to See the Love Engendered by the Faith in the Hearts of the Believers

1346. The Morbid and Turbulent Influence of the Dark Forces of the World is Felt by All

1347. We Must Pray to be Protected from the Contamination of Society

1348. Heroism is Needed by the Believers

1349. God's Ways Do Not Necessarily Coincide with Human Devices and Policies

1350. If Divided, Both Sides to a Difference Are Wrong; If United, They Are Both Right


1351. Bahá'ís Cannot Voluntarily Enlist Where Subject to Taking Human Life

1352. Bahá'ís Are Not Conscientious Objectors

1353. There Are Many Avenues Through which the Believers Can Assist in Time of War

1354. Bahá'ís Recognize the Right and Duty of Governments to Protect Their People

1355. It is Their Duty as Loyal and Devoted Citizens to Offer Their Services to Their Country

1356. "Specifically Aggressive or Directly Military" Activities Are to be Avoided

1357. A Bahá'í May Enlist in the Armed Forces if Not Made Liable for Combatant Service

1358. National Service Through Professions Useful to Mankind--National Spiritual Assembly Has Responsibility to Counsel Youth

1359. Bahá'ís Are Not Asking to be Given a Safe Berth During Hours of National Crisis

1360. Music is a Ladder by which Souls May Ascend

1361. Music is an Important Means to the Education and Development of Humanity

1362. It is Necessary that the Schools Teach Music

1363. Music as a Praiseworthy Science
1364. Music as One of the Arts
1365. Prayers Set to Music
1366. Singing and Chanting Prayers in Unison

1367. Not Appropriate to Set Obligatory Prayers to Music

1368. Standing on the Threshold of Bahá'í Culture, We Cannot Foresee Forms and Characteristics of the Future Arts

1369. The Greatest Name and the Names of the Manifestations of God or the Central Figures Should Be Used with Respect

1370. Music More Helpful Before a Talk
1371. Music Helps to Communicate with the Soul

1372. The Number Nine is Reverenced for Two Reasons by Bahá'ís

1373. The Number Nine is Considered by Bahá'ís as Sacred

1374. The Number Nine Symbolizes the Nine Great World Religions and Perfection and is the Numerical Value of Baha

1375. Nine as the Highest Digit Symbolizes Comprehensiveness, Culmination

1376. The Báb Utilized the Numerical Value of Words to Symbolize Spiritual Concepts

1377. Superstition Concerning the Number 13

1378. No Need to Fear Opposition if the Inner Life Be Sound and Vigorous

1379. Refuting Attacks and Criticisms Against the Cause Devolve Upon the National Spiritual Assembly to Consider

1380. The Cause Cannot Be Effectively Established Unless It Encounters and Triumphs Over the Forces of Opposition

1381. Bahá'í Wife Should Show Utmost Love and Kindness to Husband in Spite of His Opposition to Faith

1382. How to Rehabilitate Our Perturbed Society and Eliminate War

1383. The Church and the Clergy Often Are the Most Bitter Opponents of the Cause


1384. Affiliation with Faith Alone is Insufficient

1385. Affiliation with Non-Bahá'í Organizations

1386. Association and Affiliation Defined for Bahá'í Purposes

1387. Bahá'ís Belonging to Churches, Synagogues, Freemasonry and the Like

1388. Bahá'ís Requested to Withdraw from Masonic and Other Secret Societies

1389. Why Bahá'ís Are Requested to Withdraw from Membership in the Church, Synagogue, etc.

1390. Resignation from the Masonic Order

1391. The Believers Should Dissociate Themselves from Secret Organizations

1392. Theosophists: One Cannot Be Bahá'í and Theosophist at the Same Time

1393. World Government Organization--Should Be Non-Partisan and Non-Discriminatory

1394. New History Society--Avowed Enemies of the Faith

1395. Social Organizations, Relief Work--The Believers Are Building a Refuge for Mankind

1396. Membership in Non-Bahá'í Religious Organizations

1397. Teaching in a Mission School
1398. Bahá'ís Should Not Attack the Church
1399. A Bahá'í Cannot Be a Spiritist

1400. Relationship of Bahá'í Community to the United Nations

1401. All Social Movements Have Some Spark of Truth

1402. A Bahá'í Should Not Seek Financial Help from a Religious Organization as a Bahá'í

1403. Membership in Trade Unions--Election Procedures

1404. As to Participation in Strikes
1405. Warning Concerning Oriental Moslems

1406. The Mere Name of Bahá'í Does Not Constitute a Bahá'í

1407. Avoid Making Any Effort to Convert Orientals to the Faith--i.e., Muslims from the Middle East, Pakistan and India

1408. Iranian Bahá'ís Need Not Avoid All Contact with Iranian Muslims--However, They Should Not Seek Them Out for Friendly Contacts nor for Teaching

1409. In Certain Cases Iranian Muslims Could Be Considered for Enrolment--Each Instance to be Referred to the Universal House of Justice for Approval

1410. Bahá'í Professionals Should Not Refuse to Make Themselves Available Professionally to Iranian Muslims


1411. The Ministers of the House of Justice to Promote Peace

1412. The Time and Means Through which the Lesser and the Most Great Peace Will Be Established

1413. Unless the Message of Bahá'u'lláh Reaches into the Hearts of Men and Transforms Them, There Can Be No Peace

1414. Predictions of Peace, Prophecy of Daniel--1335 Days

1415. Prerequisite to Peace
1416. Radiation of Thought Will Not Bring Peace

1417. No Greater Bliss Than to Find One Has Become the Cause of Peace

1418. Volition and Action Are Necessary Before International Peace Can Be Established.

1419. Every Means that Produces War Must Be Checked

1420. Every Century Holds the Solution of One Predominating Problem

1421. Do Not Rest Until the Peace Foretold by the Prophets is Permanently Established

1422. To Disregard the Bahá'í Solution for Peace is to Build on Foundations of Sand

1423. The Unification of Mankind is Assured by Bahá'u'lláh and No Power Can Prevent It

1424. Bahá'u'lláh's Teachings Will Establish a Universal Consciousness and a Universal Way of Life

1425. Peace Will Come

1426. The Aims and Purpose of the Faith Are to Eliminate War and Establish Peace and Unity

1427. Nuclear Disarmament

1428. The Transition from the Present System of National Sovereignty to a System of World Government

1429. Bahá'ís Are Not Pacifists

1430. The Lesser Peace Will Initially Be a Political Unity


1431. Any Narrative Not Authenticated by a Text Should Not Be Trusted

1432. Privilege of Friends to Share Results of These Visits

1433. Pilgrims' Notes Are Hearsay and Cannot Claim the Authority of the Sacred Text

1434. The Notes of Pilgrims Are for Their Own Use
1435. The Difference Between Talks and Tablets
1436. Stories Told About Abdu'l-Bahá

1437. Only Signed or Sealed Tablets Are Considered Authentic

1438. Pilgrim's Notes Reporting the Master's Words on Embracing and Kissing

1439. Haifa Notes Collected by Mrs. Maxwell
A. Politics
1440. Political Figures
1441. Politicians: Non-Political Government Jobs

1442. No Bahá'í Can Be Regarded as Republican or Democrat

1443. Voting in Civil Elections
1444. Avoid Identification with Political Parties

1445. For Bahá'ís Living in Countries Where the Political Structure is Based on a One-Party System

1446. No Loyal Believer Should Commit Himself to a Political Program

1447. Bahá'ís Should Refrain from Voting, if They Must Identify with a Political Party or Doctrine

1448. Enrolment When Political Affiliation or Activities Are Involved

1449. Membership in Any Political Party Entails Repudiation of Principles of Peace and Unity

1450. Regarding a Bahá'í Producing Television Advertising for a Political Campaign

1451. Bahá'ís Can Neither Campaign for Office nor Undertake Partisan Political Activities--They May Hold Appointive Posts which Are Not Political

1452. No Objection to a Bahá'í Being Elected as a Neighbourhood Captain or Serving on a Neighbourhood Council, Provided...

B. Governments and Civil Authorities

1453. Shun Politics Like the Plague and be Obedient to the Government in Power

1454. The Bahá'í Cause is Above Political Parties, But the Believers Are Obliged to Whole-Heartedly Obey Existing Political Regime

1455. The Bahá'ís Should Obey the Government Even at Risk of Sacrificing Administrative Affairs--In Matters of Faith No Compromise Allowed, Even Though Outcome is Death

1456. Principle of Obedience to Government Does Not Oblige Bahá'í Teachings to be Identified with Political Program

1457. Employment with the Foreign Service

1458. Bahá'ís Must Be Loyal to Their Spiritual Assembly and at the Same Time to Civil Government, Whether Tribal Council, a Cacique or a Municipal Authority

1459. Elective or Appointive Posts in Government Should Be Accepted Only if They Do Not Contravene Given Guidelines

1460. The Faith is Not Opposed to True Interests of Any Nation

1461. Not Our Purpose to Violate Any Country's Constitution

1462. Bahá'ís Obey the Law, Federal or State

1463. Obedience to Just Governments--What It Means

1464. Taking of Oaths

1465. Implicit Obedience to Administrative Regulations

1466. There is No Objection to Taking Case to Civil Court if Assembly and Bahá'ís Are Unable to Negotiate a Settlement of a Dispute

1467. Let the World Know the Real Aim of Bahá'u'lláh

1468. Non-Interference in Political Affairs--We Must Shun Pronouncements About Systems of Politics and Not Write About Current Political Affairs

1469. One Method by which One Can Criticize the Present Day Socio-Political Order

1470. Kingship in the Future
1471. President Wilson and Dr. Jordan
C. Government Employees

1472. Those Engaged in Government Service Should Perform Their Duties with Utmost Fidelity, Trustworthiness...

1473. Government Employees Should Perform Deeds and Actions of the Highest Degree of Rectitude and Honesty

1474. Those Who Are Selected to Serve the Public Should Perform Their Duties in a Spirit of the True Servitude

1475. Those Who Enter Service of the Government Should Shun All Forms of Venality and Corruption

1476. If One Abuses His Position with the Government Through Corrupt or Mercenary Behavior...

1477. If a Man Deals Faithlessly with a Just Government, He Deals Faithlessly with God

1478. Content with Wages Received, They Should Not Stain Their Character Through Acts of Bribery and Fraud nor Misappropriate a Single Penny

A. Prayer and Meditation

1479. A Prayerful Condition is the Best of Conditions, Especially in Private and at Midnight

1480. The Reason for Privacy When Communing with God

1481. The More Detached and Pure the Prayer the More Acceptable to God

1482. The Inspiration Received Through Meditation

1483. With Prayer and Meditation Must Go Action and Example

1484. The Importance and Power of Meditation

1485. Every Day Upon Arising One Should Compare Today with Yesterday and Pray...

1486. How to Pray--One Must Start Out with the Right Concept of God

1487. Wiser to Use Meditations Given by Bahá'u'lláh--Not Set Form Recommended by Someone Else

1488. Turn to Manifestation
1489. Praying to Bahá'u'lláh
1490. Praying to Bahá'u'lláh--As the Door

1491. We May Turn to the Guardian in Prayer, But Should Not Confuse His Station with that of a Prophet

1492. Turning Toward the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh in Prayer

1493. Through Abdu'l-Bahá One Can Address Bahá'u'lláh

1494. People Who Desire to Meet and Pray
1495. Prayers Should Be Read as Printed

1496. Strictly Adhere to the Text of the Holy Writings

1497. In Quoting Prayers
1498. Specific Time for Remembrance of God
1499. Dawn Prayers
1500. Morning Prayers

1501. We Should Not Make a Practice of Saying Grace or of Teaching It to Our Children

1502. Congregational Prayer Only for the Dead
1503. Prayers May Be Recited in Unison
1504. One Person Should Read the Funeral Prayer

1505. Recital or Chanting of Prayers--Prayer is Essentially Communion Between God and Man

1506. Healing Prayer and Prayers for the Fast
1507. Effectiveness of Healing Prayer
1508. Prayers Answered Through Action

1509. Pray to be Protected from Contamination of Society

1510. Five Steps of Prayer

1511. Reciting Any Prayer Nine Times Not Obligatory

1512. The Spiritual Man Prays Only for Love of God

1513. Prayer Beads, Chanting, Congregational Prayer, etc.

1514. Reading Prayers on the Radio
1515. Bahá'í Children, Communes and Prayers

1516. Mothers or Others Delegated Should Choose Excerpts from the Sacred Word for Children to Memorize

1517. There Are No Special Instructions for Repeating Prayers of The Báb

1518. Community Prayer Sessions

1519. Bahá'ís Should Be Taught to Meditate, But Also to Guard Against Superstitious Practices

1520. "O Subduer of Winds", an Invocation for Moments of Danger

B. Obligatory Prayer

1521. There Are Mysteries and a Wisdom in Every Word and Movement of the Obligatory Prayers

1522. Obligatory Prayers

1523. Turning Towards Akka in Prayer is a Physical Symbol of an Inner Reality --One Who Does Not Understand the Acts Accompanying the Long Prayer Can Use the Short

1524. If a Believer is Ill or Physically Unable to Perform Genuflexions

1525. The Medium Prayer--Repeating the Greatest Name 95 times

1526. Physical Gestures and Washing Hands and Face in Connection with Obligatory Prayers Are Laws of Bahá'u'lláh

1527. Each One Must Say His Obligatory Prayer by Himself

1528. Regarding Reading The Báb's Prayer 500 Times

1529. The Medium Prayer to be Recited Morning, Noon and Evening--Three Times a Day

1530. Definition of "Morning", "Noon" and "Evening"

1531. In High Latitudes the National Spiritual Assembly May Fix Hours of Prayer and Fasting by the Clock.

1532. Based on Texts in the "Kitáb-i-Aqdas" and "Questions and Answers"--The Universal House of Justice Permits Use of Clock

1533. "Allah-u-Abha" is the Form of the Greatest Name to be Used in the Long Obligatory Prayer

1534. Instructions in the Long Obligatory Prayer

1535. Instructions for the Medium Obligatory Prayer

1536. The Correct Position for "Sitting" During Obligatory Prayers

1537. Ablutions and Movements to Accompany the Recitation of the Long Obligatory Prayer

1538. Ablutions Before Obligatory Prayers and Repetition of the Greatest Name

1539. The Verse to be Recited When There is No Water

A. The Báb
1540. Duration of The Báb's Dispensation
1541. Declaration of The Báb

1542. The Declaration of The Báb and the Birthday of Abdu'l-Bahá

1543. The Bayan
1544. The Iqan and the Bayan
1545. Reason for Severe Laws Revealed by The Báb
1546. Portrait of The Báb
1547. Hour of Birth of The Báb

1548. The Term "Afnan" Refers to Relatives of The Báb

1549. The Sacrifice of 19 Lambs by The Báb Was Prior to His Revelation

B. Bahá'u'lláh
1550. No Prophet in Same Category as Bahá'u'lláh

1551. Bahá'u'lláh Has Appeared in God's Greatest Name

1552. Bahá'u'lláh Conversed with Moses in the Burning Bush

1553. Bahá'u'lláh is Not God--But Through Him We Can Know God

1554. Why He Uses the Pronoun "We"

1555. There is No Record of a Prophet Similar in Station to Bahá'u'lláh

1556. Hour of Bahá'u'lláh's Birth

1557. The Dispensation of Bahá'u'lláh, Certain Passages Clarified

1558. Reckoning of Days Mentioned in the "Dispensation"

1559. Bahá'u'lláh Was a Descendent of Abraham Through Both Katurah and Sarah--Jesse, Son of Sarah, Was the Father of David and Ancestor of Bahá'u'lláh

1560. As the Return of Christ
1561. Appearance of Later Prophets
1562. Fears for Next Manifestation
1563. He Does Not Ask Us to Follow Him Blindly
1564. Christ and Bahá'u'lláh

1565. Duration of the Bahá'í Cycle and Dispensation

1566. No Explanation Given for 500,000 Year Period of Bahá'í Cycle

1567. Identifies Himself with Other Prophets

1568. Bahá'u'lláh Did Not Name "Letters of the Living" for Himself

1569. The "Trustees" of Knowledge

1570. The Bahá'í Faith is a Way of Life Not a Mere Philosophical or Social Doctrine

1571. The Teachings Should Be Conceived of as One Great Whole with Many Facets

1572. The Whole Theory of Divine Revelation Rests on the Infallibility of the Prophets

1573. There Are a Minimum of Rituals in the Bahá'í Faith and No Man-Made Dogmas

C. Explanation of Some Bahá'í Teachings

1574. What is Meant by a Personal God--God is Not Anthropomorphic

1575. Man Lives in a Three Dimensional Plane of Consciousness

1576. Possibly Indians of America Were Influenced by Prophets in Asia

1577. Mustaghath

1578. Reference in Gospel of St. John to Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh

1579. "Lord" and "God" Refer to the Creator in Bahá'í Writings

1580. Copper Can Be Transmuted into Gold
1581. Creatures Are to be Found on Every Planet
1582. "Dayspring" Defined

1583. Absolute Being Can Be Attributed Only to God--His Creation Has Relative Existence, a Separate Reality

1584. Meaning of "Sciences that Begin and End in Words"

1585. Atomic Energy--"A Strange and Wonderful Instrument"

1586. Bahá'u'lláh Exhorts Man to Try to Develop His Dormant Qualities

1587. The "Veils" Are Very Thin at the Time of the Manifestation

1588. Today It is a Greater Responsibility to Reject the Manifestation

1589. Cornerstone of All the Teachings--Oneness of Humanity

1590. "He Who Loves His Kind"
1591. "From It (Earth) We Have Created You"

1592. Second Time--Means the Spiritual Resurrection of Man

1593. The Day of Resurrection, of Judgement, and the Tomb

1594. Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh Primarily for This Planet

1595. Abhá Kingdom
1596. "Singled Out"
1597. Evolution of the Soul
1598. "Perishing"
1599. "No Man Attaineth Everlasting Life"

1600. Differences of Station and Classes in Society

1601. "Hidden Words"

1602. Iqan, Kitáb-I-Iqan--"City of God", Meaning of

1603. "Who Out of Utter Nothingness"
1604. "Hosts of His Testament" and "Cord"
1605. Sura of the Sun, Explanation of
1606. Intercession

1607. "Knowledge Consists of Twenty-Seven Letters..."

1608. Tablet of Ahmad--The Word "Ungodly"
1609. The Tablet of the Holy Mariner

1610. Tablet to the Presidents of the Republics of the Americas

1611. Tablet of Joseph
1612. Meaning of "Verities of the Faith"

1613. Meaning of the Word "Patron" in Seven Valleys

D. 'Abdu'l-Bahá
1614. Abdu'l-Bahá
1615. All Thy Doings Recorded
1616. Chief Objectives of Abdu'l-Bahá'í Ministry
1617. Experiences with Abdu'l-Bahá
1618. Stories About Abdu'l-Bahá
1619. Day of the Covenant, Day of the Ascension

1620. When the Interpreter of the Writings Says Nothing on a Subject Then the Individual is Free to Accept or Refute

1621. Praying to Abdu'l-Bahá
1622. Through Him One Can Address Bahá'u'lláh
1623. Photographs of Abdu'l-Bahá
1624. Photograph Placed in a Dignified Position
1625. Preservation of Relics
1626. Ages of the Faith and Epochs of the Ages
1627. The Divine Plan

1628. The Tablets of the Divine Plan Are the Charter for Teaching

1629. Apostolic and Heroic Age of the Faith
1630. The Application of the Term "Iron Age"
E. Hidden Words

1631. The "Hidden Words"--A Collection of Gem-Like Utterances

1632. The Meaning of the Name "Hidden Words"
1633. The Hidden Words Have No Sequence

1634. Passages in which Bahá'u'lláh Refers to Man as "Son of Spirit"

1635. Hidden Words (Arabic) No. 13 Explained
F. Christ
1636. Date of Birth of Jesus Christ
1637. Christ, Virgin Birth of
1638. Miracles Are Always Possible

1639. Bahá'í Teachings in Agreement with Doctrines of Catholic Church Concerning the Virgin Birth

1640. Christ's Brothers and Sisters Were Born in the Natural Way

1641. High Station of Mary--False Accusations
1642. "Dove" Simply a Metaphor

1643. The Bahá'í Faith Recognizes the Divine Origin of Christianity and the Immaculacy of the Virgin Mary

1644. Regarding the Station of Jesus--All Prophets Can Be Regarded as Sons of God for They All Reflect His Light

1645. According to the Gospel Jesus Gave Only Two Material Ordinances

1646. The Crucifixion as Recorded in the New Testament is Correct

1647. The Father Himself Has Come and Fulfilled the Mission of Christ the Son

1648. Bahá'ís Do Not Believe in a Bodily Resurrection After the Crucifixion

1649. Bahá'ís Should Try to Find a Spiritual Meaning to the So-Called Miraculous Events Recorded in the Gospel

1650. Jesus Christ Established Beyond a Doubt the Primacy of Peter

1651. Regarding the Signs that Would Herald the Advent of the New Manifestation

1652. The Quran Concerning Christ

1653. The Reformation Was a Challenge to Man-Made Organization of the Church

1654. The Period of Turmoil which Accompanies a New Manifestation

1655. Ecclesiastics 12:6--Man's Neglect of God
1656. There is a Spark of Divinity in Man
1657. Reference to Bahá'u'lláh in St. John

1658. We Do Not Believe in Genesis Literally--The World Was Not Created in Seven Days

1659. The Years of Noah Are Not Years as We Count Them and We Cannot Substantiate Stories of the Old Testament

1660. When Abdu'l-Bahá States that We Believe What is in The Bible, He Means in Substance

G. Islám
1661. The Date of Birth of Muhammad is Unknown
1662. Biblical References to Muhammad and Ali
1663. Islam

1664. Muhammad's Teachings Heightened and Guarded the Cause of Human Development

1665. Clarification of Certain Issues Regarding Islam, the Imam Husayn, the Imamate, etc.

1666. How to Study the Quran
1667. Meaning of "Jin" or "Genii"
1668. Caliphate and Imamate

1669. Muhammad Says that the Jews Did Not Crucify Christ

1670. Muhammadanism is a Fuller Revelation Than Any One Preceding It

1671. Muhammad's Teachings Fostered the National State

1672. The Plurality of Wives in Muslim Countries Does Not Conform with the Teachings of Muhammad

1673. Imam Husayn
H. Israel
1674. Israel
1675. Position of Jerusalem
1676. All Palestine to Become Home
1677. Gathering of Israel
1678. Journey of the Israelites
1679. Erroneous Belief
1680. Ten Tribes of Israel

1681. The Jews Have a Great Spiritual Destiny and Will Enter the Faith in Large Groups

1682. Greek Philosophers Visited Israel's Scholars and Religious Leaders

I. Prophets and Prophecies of Various Religions

1683. Bahá'u'lláh is the Culmination of the Adamic Cycle and the Inaugurator of the Bahá'í Cycle

1684. Buddha Was a Manifestation Like Christ

1685. Confucius Was Not a Prophet But a Great Reformer

1686. Daniel, Prophecies of
1687. King David
1688. Genesis 22:9--Sacrifice of Ishmael
1689. Lot
1690. Zoroaster--Was Not Abraham
1691. Beginning of Zoroastrian Era
1692. Hindu Religion
1693. Sabeanism
1694. Lao-Tse and the Sabeans

1695. There Were No Followers of The Báb and Bahá'u'lláh from the Far East During Their Ministry

1696. Hinduism, Buddhism and Zoroastrianism (Following are some quotations taken from a compilation of extracts from letters written on behalf of the Guardian on these and related subjects, enclosed with a letter to an individual believer on November 30, 1980 from the Universal House of Justice)

1697. Existence is of Two Kinds

1698. Manifestations Had Some Consciousness of Their Station

1699. The Souls of the Prophets Are Pre-Existent
1700. Hadrat--His Holiness
1701. Fundamental Purpose of All Religions
1702. Fundamentals of Religions
1703. Cosmic Religion
1704. Core of Religious Faith
1705. Oneness of Mankind Cornerstone of Teachings

1706. Primary Importance of the Cause Among Existing Religions

1707. Meaning of "Mysterious Power that Creates New Spiritual Worlds"

1708. Meaning of Personal God: Value of Religion Please refer to No. 1574

1709. Religion Should Change Our Acts as Well as Our Thoughts

1710. World Religion Day, Purpose of
1711. Significance of Remains of the Prophets
1712. The Atoms of the Prophets Are Just Atoms
1713. The Four and Twenty Elders
1714. Perfection of God Found in His Prophets
1715. References to Bahá'u'lláh
1716. The Ark and the Flood
1717. Generation, the Word Has Different Meanings
1718. The Cross--This Figure Exists in All Things

1719. The Teachings of Swedenborg and Emerson Should Be Considered as Advanced Stirrings of the Time

1720. Emanuel Swedenborg

1721. Abdu'l-Bahá Praised Emanual Swedenborg for His Efforts for Social and Religious Reconstruction

1722. Because of the Progressiveness of the Teachings of Swedenborg He Can Be Considered a Herald of This Day

1723. People Like Emerson Were No Doubt Inspired by God

1724. The Difference Between the Gnostics and the Religionists

1725. Christ Referred to the World of the Prophets as the "Word", Abdu'l-Bahá Calls It the "Will"

1726. God Will Continue to Send His Prophets that Man May Obtain His Highest Goal

1727. Joseph Smith and the Book of Mormon
1728. Status of Joseph Smith
1729. The Mormons Have High Principles and Ideals
1730. Source of Evil Thoughts
1731. Evil Spirits
1732. Influence of Evil Spirits
1733. Evil Spirits Refer to Lower Nature of Man
1734. Evil Exists

1735. Psychic Powers in Children--Dangerous to Cultivate

1736. The Fourth Dimension
1737. Avoid Psychic Phenomena
1738. Possession

1739. Should Strive to Have Pure Thoughts and Dreams

1740. Difficult to Distinguish Truth from Imagination

1741. Difference Between Divine Revelation and Personal Experience

1742. True Mystical Experiences Rare
1743. No Need for Individual Revelations
1744. Let the Future Take Care of Itself

1745. Development of Psychic Faculties Weakens Spiritual Capacities

1746. Astronomy is a Science, Astrology is Not
1747. Non-Sensical Pseudo-Science
1748. Horoscopes
1749. Fruitless Sciences
1750. Influence of the Stars and Planets
1751. Numerology

1752. Neither Numerology nor Astrology Needed by the Believers

1753. Automatic Writing

1754. World's Greatest Writers and Painters Have Not Been Under Psychic Influence

1755. Table Writing
1756. Spiritualism and Psychic Phenomena

1757. Numerology, Physiognomy--Too Much Exaggerated

1758. Telepathy
1759. Be Not Afraid Anyone Can Affect Your Mind
1760. Spiritualists
1761. Mesmerism or Trumpet Communications
1762. Materialization of Spirits Through Mediums
1763. "Masters" Behind the Scenes
1764. Pyramids
1765. Pyramid of Cheops
1766. Protection of the Holy Spirit

1767. Heaven and Hell Conditions Within Our Own Beings--The Prophets Know God...

1768. Psychic Arts--The Influence of Such Arts is Dependent on Conviction of the Person Affected

1769. Bahá'ís Recognize that Evil is Negative and Can Take Control of Our Life But We Have the Power to Become Free of Such Forces

1770. Evil Souls Who Have Passed Away Can Exercise No Power Over the People

1771. The Solution to Such Beliefs and Problems Involves a Process of Educating the Friends in the Teachings

1772. What is Commonly Called Evil Spirits is Normally an Imaginary Creation But Evil Influences Both in This World and the Next

1773. Occult Practices of Certain Hindus Introduced in the States Are Completely Contrary to the Teachings and Should Be Avoided by the Friends

1774. Spiritual Experiences Can Have Great Influence On Us But the Call Today is to Try to Save the Human Race--This is the Duty of Every Soul

1775. Aboriginal Inhabitants--Downtrodden People

1776. Tablets of the Divine Plan--Natives of America May Become Great Standard Bearers of the Faith

1777. Prejudice and Condescension--Contact with City Indians

1778. Afro-Americans and Amerindians

1779. First Member of His Race to Embrace the Cause

1780. Service of the Negro
1781. Guardian's Appeal to Negro Race
1782. Concentrate on Teaching the Negroes
1783. Compared with Pupil of the Eye
1784. Work of Negro Has Been of Greatest Help

1785. The Negroes Have a Contribution to Make to Bahá'u'lláh's World Order

1786. Pure-Hearted, Spiritually Receptive Negro Race

1787. Faces Are as Pupil of the Eye

1788. The Principle of the Oneness of Mankind Precludes Possibility of Considering Race as a Bar to Social Interaction

1789. The Guardian Addresses the Negro
1790. Addressed to Members of the White Race
1791. Let the White Make a Supreme Effort
1792. Unity in Diversity

1793. The Guardian Addresses Both Races--Neither Race Can Claim to be Absolved from Obligation

1794. God Makes No Distinction
1795. Prejudice Destroys Edifice of Humanity

1796. Object of Inter-Racial Work--Japanese, Americans, Mexicans, Chinese, Negroes

1797. Just Interest of Minorities

1798. The Coloured Friends Need the Faith--Have Suffered and Been Downtrodden

1799. Guilty Before God to Allow Prejudice to Manifest Itself

1800. To Be a Bahá'í is to be Different
1801. Bahá'ís Are Not Perfect

1802. Abdu'l-Bahá Foretold for the Indians of America a Great Future if They Accepted the Teachings of Bahá'u'lláh

1803. Bahá'ís Approve of Inter-Racial Unions
1804. Campus Protest Against Racial Prejudice

1805. The Bahá'í Must Scrupulously Avoid Involvement in Political Issues Therefore Cannot Participate in Anti-Apartheid Demonstrations

1806. Teaching Multi-Racial Students in the Universities and Other Minority Groups in America, Such as Czechs, Poles, Russians...

1807. Racial Prejudice is Simply a Negation of Faith

1808. It is the Responsibility of the Believers to Combat and Uproot Racial Prejudice in Their Midst

1809. God Has Richly Endowed the Negro Race

1810. The Negro Race and the White Race Must Do All in Their Power to Destroy the Prejudice which Exists on Both Sides

1811. The Negro Bahá'ís Have a Great Responsibility Towards Their Own Race and Fellow Believers

1812. Principle of the Oneness of Mankind--Incompatible with Racial Prejudices

1813. The Evil Forces of Prejudice

1814. The Negroes Should Be Proud and Happy in the Praises which Bahá'u'lláh Bestowed Upon Them and Other Downtrodden Races

1815. The Guardian Encourages Participation with Non-Political Progressive Groups

1816. The Whites Should Welcome Negroes in Their Homes and Even Marry Them if They Wish--Both Sides Have Prejudice to Overcome

1817. The Sufferings and Tribulations of the Jews Will Terminate During the Bahá'í Era

1818. The Glorious Destiny of the Jews

1819. Believers of Jewish Descent Should Call Themselves Bahá'ís

1820. Bahá'í Position on Reincarnation
1821. Everybody is Entitled to Their Own Opinion

1822. Learning Can Be the Veil Between the Soul of Man and Truth

1823. Have Not Had Time to Evolve Bahá'í Scholars Who Can Deal with These Subjects

1824. Unlikely You Will Be Able to Convert People Who Study These Topics

1825. What Bahá'u'lláh Means by Faculty of Sight and Hearing

1826. Reincarnation Does Not Exist

1827. We Must Use Writings of the Prophets as Our Measurement

A. Reverence

1828. Reverence and Respect Toward the Holy Places

1829. The Record of Abdu'l-Bahá'í Voice Should Be Listened to with the Utmost Reverence

1830. Viewing the Film of Abdu'l-Bahá

1831. Portrayal of Any of the Manifestations of God Forbidden

1832. Showing Reverence Differs from Culture to Culture

1833. Photograph of Bahá'u'lláh
B. Spirituality
1834. Man is at the Beginning of Spirituality
1835. Requisites for Spiritual Growth

1836. Points Towards the Attainment of True Spirituality--Spiritual Exercises of Prayer and Meditation

1837. Bahá'u'lláh Specified No Procedure to be Followed in Meditation and No Method Should Be Taught in Summer Schools

1838. For Private Meditation, Believer May Desire to Use the Greatest Name

1839. Cleanliness Contributes to Spirituality

1840. The Obligatory Prayers and Reading Sacred Scriptures Every Morning and Evening Nourish Growth of Spirituality

1841. The Foundation of Spirituality is Steadfastness in the Covenant

1842. People Are So Markedly Lacking in Spirituality These Days

1843. There is a Need for a True Spiritual Awareness

1844. Spiritual Education and Progress Depend on Recognition of the Infallibility of the Manifestation of God

1845. Prayer Absolutely Indispensable--To Attain Spirituality

A. Guidelines
1846. A Wider Horizon is Opening Before Us

1847. The Concept of Social and Economic Development is Enshrined in the Teachings of Bahá'u'lláh

1848. His Teachings Emphasize Bringing into Being a World Unified in All Essential Aspects of Life

1849. Steps to be Taken to Attain This Goal Must Begin in the Bahá'í Community

1850. Establishment of Office of Social and Economic Development in the World Centre

1851. The Powers Released by Bahá'u'lláh Match the Needs of the Time

1852. Progress in Development Field Depends on Stirrings at the Grass Roots

1853. The Major Tasks of National Spiritual Assemblies

1854. Applying Systematically Principles of the Faith to Upraising Quality of Human Life

1855. Universal House of Justice Calls Individual to Action

1856. The Nature and Extent of Believers' Involvement Must Vary from Country to Country

B. Agriculture

1857. Strive to Become Proficient in the Science of Agriculture

1858. Solution to Economic Problem Should Begin with the Farmer

1859. A General Warehouse Will Be Founded which Will Have Seven Revenues

C. Economics

1860. Bahá'í System Prevents Extremes of Wealth and Poverty

1861. Should Not Confuse Methods Explained by Abdu'l-Bahá with Present Day Systems

1862. Regarding Problems of Ownership, Control and Distribution of Capital

1863. Voluntary Sharing

1864. Spirit that Permeates Economic Life Will Crystallize into Definite Institutions

1865. Social Inequality
1866. "Equality is a Chimera!"
1867. Wages

1868. Application of Spiritual Principles to Economic System

1869. Profit Sharing Recommended to Solve One Form of Economic Problems

1870. Man Will Always Have to Toil to Earn His Living

1871. Religion Alone Can Enable Man to Adjust the Economic Relationships of Society

1872. A New Universal Attitude Needs to be Fostered--Based on Spiritual Verities

D. Projects

1873. Participation in Projects Depends Largely on Certain Conditions in the Community

1874. The Primary Objective of Such Projects Should Be Service to the Community, Not as a Business

1875. Social and Economic Development Projects Should Meet Needs and Aspirations of Local Believers

1876. Two Fundamental Principles

1877. Social and Economic Development Must Be Placed on a Spiritual Basis to Prove Productive

1878. Suggestions for Projects Are Welcome

1879. Projects May Receive Help in Finances and Manpower from Bahá'í Sources

E. Objectives for Social and Economic Development

1880. The Preservation of Cultural Identities and Customs

1881. Arts, Crafts and Sciences

1882. Wealth is Praiseworthy--If Acquired by Efforts and Grace of God, and if Expended for Philanthropic Purposes

1883. The Promotion of Education
F. Requisites for Success

1884. The Mashriqu'l-Adhkar--The Spiritual Precedes the Material

1885. The Spiritual Principle Induces an Attitude, a Dynamic, a Will, an Aspiration

G. Tutorial Schools

1886. The Importance of Establishing Tutorial Schools

1887. Bahá'í Youth and Young Adults Should Be Willing to Become Teachers

1888. School Should Be Planned by Bahá'ís in Consultation with Non-Bahá'ís

1889. A Privately Owned Kindergarten Could Be Considered a Social and Economic Activity for Statistics

1890. Contributions from Non-Bahá'ís for Maintenance of Tutorial Schools

A. Summer Schools
1891. Purpose of Summer Schools

1892. Undue Time Should Not Be Spent on Philosophic and Esoteric Subjects

1893. Summer Schools Can Attract Many Souls
1894. Lecture Method Not Sufficient
1895. Supervised by National Assembly

1896. Summer Schools Inseparable Part of Teaching Campaign

1897. Introduce Bahá'í Atmosphere
1898. Dancing, Nothing in Teachings Against
1899. Topics to be Discussed

1900. The Summer School Curriculum Should Concentrate on Deepening the Student's Grasp of the Teachings

1901. It is Important that Courses on Covenant-Breaking Be Included in the Summer School Curriculum

1902. Indispensable for Students to Study the Pattern of the World Order of Bahá'u'lláh

1903. The Importance of the Study of Islam--Need Competent Lecturers and Writers, Not Necessarily Bahá'ís

1904. Teaching of the Quran is Absolutely Indispensable

1905. Character Building and Ethics
1906. Few Days Not Sufficient to Learn Everything

1907. Bahá'í Youth Attendant at Louhelen Shoulder Responsibility in Connection with Development of the Bahá'í University

B. Bahá'í Teaching Institutes
1908. Teaching Institutes

1909. Institute Should Be Centre of Complex Activities

1910. Subjects to be Taught

1911. Issuing Diplomas Discouraged--Sometimes They Are Misused

1912. A Teaching Institute at Present is a Function and Not Necessarily a Building

A. Deepening

1913. Incumbent on Believers to Read Sacred Writings Daily

1914. Deepening--What It Means--No Limit to the Study of the Cause

1915. Deepening Generates Stimulus
1916. Study with Others

1917. Study Classes--Little Knowledge is Dangerous--Quote from the Tablets

1918. Deepen Their Knowledge

1919. Understanding the Import of His Teachings Motivates New Believers to Dedicate Their Lives to His Service

1920. Study and Application

1921. Spiritual Teachings of Faith--Will and Testament, Firm Grounding Needed

1922. Presenting the Master's Will to Newcomers

1923. The Cause Needs People Whose Faith Stands on a Rock, No Trial Can Move

1924. Education of New Believers

1925. Regarding Spiritual Children, Each Soul Receives Gift of Faith for Himself, Independent of Teachers

1926. One Cannot Catch the Spirit of the Cause Through the Reading of Books Alone

1927. Imperative Need to Deepen in the Cause--God's Purpose for Man

1928. The Study of Dawn-Breakers Will Arouse the Friends to Renewed Zeal

1929. Theme Pursued in Effort to Deepen--What is God's Purpose for the Human Race?

1930. Presenting Greatest Name Prematurely

1931. One Must Deepen His Knowledge of the Literature in Order to Teach Others and Render Service to the Faith

1932. The Teachings of Bahá'u'lláh Deal with Many Aspects of Man's Inner and Communal Life

1933. Progress of Cause Now to be Characterized by Increasing Relationship with Non-Bahá'í World--Our Preparation Must Be Continual Deepening

B. Pioneers and Pioneering

1934. Pioneers--Homeless and Wanderers in the Path of God

1935. Not for a Moment Are Ye Alone
1936. Flee Their Homelands

1937. House of Justice Defines "Pioneer" and "Pioneering"--There Can Be No Question of "Recalling" a Pioneer from His Field of Service

1938. 1938"Pioneer Status Clarified: Who is a Pioneer?

1939. Every Bahá'í, Especially Those Who Leave Their Homes to Serve in Foreign Lands, Should Turn Their Gaze to Marion Jack

1940. A Self-Supporting Pioneer Cannot Be Required to Settle in Any Given Locality

1941. Only if Especially Required for a Specific Locality Can a Pioneer Be Required to Settle There

1942. The Guardian's Exhortations to Bahá'ís to Leave Centres Where Large Numbers Had Congregated Were to Disperse Them to Needy Goals--The Spiritual Importance of Remaining at Their Posts

1943. All Bahá'ís Have the Duty to Teach and Serve; Some Who Settle for Personal Purposes May Fill Pioneer Goals

1944. Iranians Who Settle in the Americas

1945. Persians Can Render Utmost Service to the Teaching Work, But They Must Settle as Pioneers and be in the Minority

1946. Whether Youth and Children Should Be Listed as Pioneers

1947. The Native Believers Should Be Encouraged to Become the Pivot of the Teaching Activities

1948. Pioneering is the Highest Form of Bahá'í Cooperation in Marriage

1949. Neither Persian nor American Pioneers Should Congregate in a Few Chosen Places

1950. Pioneer Should Not Leave Post Until There is Nothing Else to Do--They Should Confirm Native People Like Enoch Olinga Who Will Ignite the Flame of Faith in Others

1951. Initial Obscurity Surrounding Work of Pioneer--Protection to Faith

1952. The Purpose of Dispersal

1953. Pioneers Entering Pioneer Field Should Realize They Go as National Spiritual Assembly Representatives--To Represent the Cause

1954. The Work of the Pioneer is the Most Important Task an Individual Can Perform; Its Blessings Are Great

1955. When an Administrative Body is Established, the Pioneer Ceases to Have a Unique Status

1956. Pioneers Enhance Prestige of Faith

1957. Perseverance of Pioneers Assured Reward in Both Worlds

1958. Isolated Pioneers Are Like a Lighthouse of Bahá'u'lláh

1959. Struggles of a Pioneer--God Will Assist All Those Who Arise to Serve Him

1960. Even if Bereft of Every Human Knowledge, Everyone Who with a Pure, Detached Heart Arises to Serve His Cause is Promised Bahá'u'lláh's Divine Assistance

1961. Bahá'u'lláh is Always on the Watch, Ready to Come to Our Assistance

1962. In the Best and Highest Sense of the Term "Missionary" It Can Be Applied to Our Teachers--There is No Objection to the Word Appearing on Passports

1963. Assembly Should Arrange to Replace Pioneer Before He Leaves Post

1964. No Service in Entire Bahá'í World as Important as Pioneering Work in Virgin Areas

1965. Pioneers in Virgin Areas Cannot Vote in National Elections

1966. Pioneers Should Work in Close Harmony with Local Believers

C. Proclamation
1967. Youth Should Not Be Stultified

1968. Mass Distribution of Reply Paid Inquiry Cards

1969. Importance of Reaching Distinguished Persons with the Teachings

1970. Eminent Men Are Often Captives of Their Cherished Ideas, But When the Pendulum Starts to Swing...

1971. Proclaiming the Faith to Modern Thinkers and Leaders of Society

D. Radio
1972. Power of Radio for Proclamation
1973. Historic Forward Step in Proclamation

1974. Bring to Attention of the Public the Fact that the Faith Exists

1975. Examples of Prudence to be Exercised in Presenting History and Teachings of the Faith

1976. Voluntary Contributions May Be Accepted--However, Fund-Raising Activities Should Not Be Carried Out by Bahá'í Radio

E. Teaching
1977. Arise to Serve His Cause
1978. Teaching Enjoined on Believers in Aqdas
1979. Meditate on Methods of Teaching

1980. The Teachings Are Not Given to Us to Treasure and Hide

1981. Abdu'l-Bahá Teaches How to Teach
1982. Recompense of Martyr Assuredly Recorded
1983. Teaching Not Conditioned by Occupation
1984. Intensive Work is of More Lasting Nature
1985. Teachers Must Be Satisfied with Little Food

1986. Develop a System of Travelling Teacher Circuits

1987. Travelling Teachers Reinforce Work of Pioneers

1988. What Visiting Teachers Are Supposed to Do
1989. Travelling Teachers Have No Special Status
1990. Travelling Expenses of Teachers

1991. No Bahá'í Teachers Permanently Employed by Faith

1992. Travelling Teachers Should Be Assisted Financially to Carry Out Assigned Projects

1993. We Have No One in the Faith Whose Position is Comparable to Professional Clergymen or Priests

1994. Support by the Fund Only Temporary

1995. Travelling Teachers and Believers Who Travel Frequently

1996. Spiritual Maturing is a Slow Process

1997. Each One of the Believers is Like an Ark of Salvation

1998. First Condition of a Religious Teacher

1999. Importance of Teaching--Terrible Problems Confronting Humanity

2000. Need Teachers of Spiritual Capacity, Knowledge of Covenant

2001. Everyone is a Potential Teacher
F. Mass Teaching

2002. Distribution of Bahá'í Material in Mail Boxes of Homes and Apartments

2003. Great Care Should Be Exercised in Selecting Teachers to Teach

2004. Exercise Care in Presenting Cause to Avoid Misconceptions

2005. Mankind Has the Right to Hear the Message of Bahá'u'lláh

2006. The Purpose of Consolidation
2007. True Consolidation
2008. Proclamation, Expansion and Consolidation

2009. Consolidation is that Aspect of Teaching which Assists Believers to Deepen Their Knowledge of the Teachings...

2010. Consolidation is an Essential and Inseparable Element of Teaching

2011. Expansion and Consolidation Are Co-Equal

2012. The Purpose of Teaching is Not Complete with a Declaration of Faith

2013. Qualities Necessary--Pure Spirit and Love--Illiterates Cannot Read for Themselves

2014. Simplicity in Giving the Message--The Unsophisticated People Form Majority

2015. Poorer Classes Should Be Taught--Confirm People

2016. Teaching Campaigns
2017. Aim of All Bahá'í Institutions and Teachers
2018. Challenge to Every Believer and Institution

2019. Challenge to Local and National Administrative Institutions

2020. Challenge to the Individual Bahá'í
2021. How Can True Believer Remain Silent

2022. Charitable and Humanitarian Aspects of Faith--Be Careful Not to Emphasize

2023. Honoraria or Expenses for Talking on the Faith at Non-Bahá'í Events

2024. Teachers as Administrators

2025. Bahá'ís Should Be Aware that Opening a New Territory or Town is Only the First Move

2026. The Basic Objective of Teaching

2027. The Guardian Encouraged Early Enrollment of New Believers

2028. Indirect Teaching: What It Constitutes
2029. The Teaching of the Indians in America
2030. Teaching the Muslims

2031. It is the Holy Spirit that Confirms and the Individual Should Become as a Reed Through which the Spirit May Descend

2032. Many People Are Ready for and Longing to Find These Teachings

2033. The Teacher Should Use Whatever Method of Expression that Will Attract the Listener

2034. Audacity in Teaching is Essential, But with Tact, Wisdom and Consideration

2035. Regarding Those Who Are Enrolled, But Do Not Consider Themselves Bahá'ís

2036. The Most Successful Way for the Individual to Carry on the Teaching Work

2037. Bahá'ís Often Each Other's Greatest Test

2038. Growing Pains Every Bahá'í Community Experiences

2039. Failures, Tests and Trials Are Means of Purifying Our Spirits

2040. God Sometimes Causes Us to Suffer Much that We May Become Strong in His Cause

2041. A Man May Forget God While Happy

2042. Difficulties Are Means for the Spirit to Grow

2043. Is It Right to Tell Untruth to Save Another?

2044. No Comfort in This World--Some Under Pressure Commit Suicide

2045. We Can Turn Our Stumbling Blocks Into Stepping Stones

2046. Life Afflicts Us with Very Severe Trials which We Must Accept Patiently

2047. Many Tests Are Due to Our Own Nature

2048. Only Through Suffering Can Nobility of Character Be Made Manifest--The Energy We Spend Enduring the Intolerance of Others is Not Lost

2049. Suffering Seems to be Part of the Polish God Employs to Enable Us to Reflect More of His Attributes

2050. Sometimes Things which Seem Difficult to Understand Have a Simple, Reasonable Explanation

A. Founding of the Temple

2051. Founding of Temple Marks Inception Kingdom of God on Earth

2052. Temple Ordained to be Ark to Ride Tidal Wave

2053. First Institute by the Disciples Was a Temple

2054. Effect on Those Who Build It--Arise for the Service of Temple

2055. Accessories to the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar

2056. One of the Most Vital Institutions in the World is the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar

2057. The Relationship of an Administrative Building to the Temple is Worship and Service

B. Worship in the Temple
2058. The Reason for a Place of Worship
2059. The Character of Meetings in the Auditorium
2060. Non-Bahá'í Public Welcome
2061. Worship in Temple
2062. Talking in the Temple

2063. Scriptures of Other Religions, Readers, Music in the House of Worship

2064. The Auditorium May Be Used for Special Prayers by Visiting Groups, Bahá'í or Non-Bahá'í

2065. The Chanting of Tablets in the Temple

2066. Questions and Answers Concerning Services in the House of Worship

C. Temple Guiding and Other Activities

2067. The Temple Guide Has a Very Sacred Obligation

2068. Bahá'í Guides Should Be Well Informed
2069. The Essential Requisites for Guides
2070. Work at the Temple on Holy Days

2071. Land Grant from Government Not Acceptable for Temple Site


2072. Both Women and Men Have Been Created in the Image of God

2073. Clarification Exclusion of Women on House of Justice

2074. The Membership of the Universal House of Justice is Confined to Men; This is Not a Function Designated for Women

2075. Women Are Destined to Attain to the Very Highest Station of the World of Humanity--Bahá'u'lláh Has Willed It So!

2076. Reference to the "Men of Justice" Cited in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas is Based on a Certain Principle Deriving from Bahá'u'lláh

2077. All Mankind Are the Creatures of One God--"Man" is a Generic Term Applying to All Humanity

2078. Bahá'u'lláh Made Women Respected by Proclaiming that All Women Be Educated--In Some Societies It was Preferable that She Should Not Know Reading and Writing

2079. The New Age Will Be an Age Less Masculine; the Feminine and Masculine Elements Will Be More Evenly Balanced

2080. Woman Would Be the Peer of Men if Equal Opportunity Were Granted

2081. With the Same Educational Advantages Women Will Show Equal Capacity for Scholarship

2082. She is the Coadjutor of Man

2083. The Need to Educate and Guide Women in Their Primary Responsibility as Mothers

2084. No Nation Can Achieve Success Unless Education is Accorded to All Its Citizens

2085. If Mother is Educated Then Her Children Will Be Well Taught

2086. The Assumption of Superiority by Men Will Continue to be Depressing to the Ambition of Women

2087. The Boldness which the Women Who Enlisted in the Ranks of the Faith Have Evinced is One of the Miracles which Distinguish This Sacred Dispensation

2088. The Women's Liberation Movement

2089. What Abdu'l-Bahá Meant by Women Arising for Peace

2090. The Emancipation of Women and the Achievement of Full Equality is One of the Most Important Prerequisites for Peace

2091. The Hearts of Women Are More Tender and Susceptible Than the Hearts of Men and They Are More Philanthropic and Responsive Toward the Needy and Suffering

2092. Woman by Nature is Opposed to War

2093. The Woman Has Greater Moral Courage Than Man and is of the Greater Importance to the Race

2094. The Duty of Women in Being the First Educators of Mankind

2095. At Present the Equality of Men and Women is Not Universally Applied

2096. One of the Factors in Bringing About International Peace is Woman's Suffrage

2097. Equality of Men and Women is Conducive to the Abolition of Warfare

2098. The Principle of Equality Can Be Effectively and Universally Established When Pursued in Conjunction with All Other Aspects of Bahá'í Life

2099. God Does Not Inquire, "Art Thou Woman or Art Thou Man?"

2100. Woman Must Study the Industrial and Agricultural Sciences in Order to Assist Mankind in that which is Most Needful

2101. When Woman Receives Education and Full Rights to the Prerogatives of Man, She Will Refuse to Send Her Sons to the Battlefield and She Will Abolish Warfare Among Mankind

2102. Abdu'l-Bahá Regards Such Inequalities as Remain Between the Sexes in This Age as Being "Negligible"

2103. The World of Humanity Consists of Two Complementary Parts: Male and Female. If One is Defective the Other Will Necessarily Be Incomplete

2104. Universal Peace is Impossible Without Universal Suffrage: It is Historically True that Every Influential Undertaking in the World Where Woman Was a Participant Has Attained Importance

A. Work is Worship
2105. Work is Worship

2106. Idle People Have No Place in the World Order

2107. Abdu'l-Bahá Advocates the Need for a Profession--He Said His Was Mat-Making

2108. Bahá'u'lláh Commands that Everyone Should Engage in Some Sort of Profession

2109. Division of Time
2110. Art is Worship

2111. Working for the Cause Does Not Constitute Professional Activity

2112. Practice Economy
2113. All Humanity Must Obtain a Livelihood
2114. Retirement from Work
2115. Work in the Cause at Whatever Age

2116. "Occupy Yourselves with that which Profiteth Yourselves and Others"

2117. Must a Wife and Mother Work for Her Livelihood as Her Husband Does?

2118. The Man Has Primary Responsibility for the Financial Support of the Family and the Woman is the Chief and Primary Educator of the Children

2119. Concerning the Amount of Time a Mother May Spend Outside the Home

2120. The Importance of the Mother's Role Derives from the Fact that She is the First Educator of the Child

B. Trade Unions and Strikes

2121. Guidelines in Respect to Membership in Trade Unions and Participation in Strikes


2122. Our Expectant Eyes Are Fixed on Bahá'í Youth!

2123. Teenagers
2124. Special Message and Mission for Youth

2125. Youth Should Open Their Eyes to Existing Situation of World Conditions and Inquire About What the Future is Going to Bring

2126. To Make Their Views Known to Others the Young People Should Keep in Touch with Local Youth Activities

2127. Youth Should Be Scholars of the Faith--Material Training and Material Progress Are Insufficient

2128. Saints, Heroes, Martyrs and Administrators
2129. Cause Doomed to Stagnation if Youth Fail

2130. The Responsibility for Teaching is Placed on the Shoulders of the Bahá'í Youth

2131. Youth Will Inherit the Work of the Older Bahá'ís

2132. The Need of Modern Youth for a Type of Ethics Founded on Pure Religious Faith

2133. Associate in a Friendly Spirit with Others

2134. From Beginning Bahá'í Era Youth Played Vital Part

2135. We May Well Emulate the Youth
2136. Upsurge of Bahá'í Youth

2137. Youth Should Be Encouraged to Think of Their Studies

2138. Youth Will Arise for the Sake of God

2139. The House of Justice Calls on the Bahá'í Youth as "Legatees of the Heroic Early Believers" to Redouble Their Efforts in Spreading the Divine Message

2140. Youth Should Not Indict Non-Bahá'í Friends for They Only See a World Crumbling But We See a New World Being Built Up

2141. Education, One of the Most Fundamental Factors of True Civilization

2142. Future Peace--Great Responsibility Borne by Youth

2143. The Universal House of Justice Calls on Bahá'í Youth to Rededicate Themselves to the Urgent Needs of the Cause

2144. The Bahá'í Youth of Today Have the Distinction of Seeing the Establishment of the Lesser Peace and the Reconciliation of Society

2145. The Key to Success is to Deepen Your Understanding of the Teachings and be Able to Explain Them to Your Peers

2146. Youth and Fellow Believers Exhorted to Arise and Revolutionize the Progress of the Cause

2147. Courses of Study that One Can Pursue to Acquire Skills Needed to Assist the Developing Countries

2148. Simultaneously with the Proclamation Engendered by the Persecutions in Iran, More People Are Seeking Their True Identity

2149. Persevere in Your Individual Efforts to Teach the Faith, Study the Writings, Serve Mankind, Volunteer for Projects

2150. The Assembly Should Encourage the Invaluable Aid of Youth as Travelling Teachers, to Hold Youth Class, Etc.

2151. Youth Must Be Encouraged to Devise and Execute Their Own Teaching Plans

2152. The House of Justice Applauds Efforts of Youth to Acquire Spiritual Qualities

2153. The Youth Have the Inescapable Duty of Reflecting the Transforming Power of the Faith to Society

2154. The Youth Must Aspire to Excellence, Move Towards Front Ranks of Professions, Trades, Arts and Crafts

2155. The Youth Must Constantly Strive to Exemplify a Bahá'í Life which is the Opposite of the Moral Decay of Society

2156. Contact with Racial Minorities in a Country with Such a Large Element of Prejudice is Important

2157. The Bahá'í Faith is a Religion that Belongs to the Youth

2158. Second Declaration: No Such Thing

2159. The Solution to Difficulties which Stand in the Way of Co-Operation Between Young and Old Believers

2160. Laws and Precepts which Some Young Believers Are Inclined to Resent

2161. After Each Prayer Supplicate God to Bestow Mercy and Forgiveness Upon Your Parents

2162. Reaching the Age of Nineteen

2163. Regarding a National Committee to Supervise the Work of the Youth

Click on any of the numbers below to go to an item number of Lights of Guidance:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 561 562 563 564 565 566 567 568 569 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 590 591 592 593 594 595 596 597 598 599 600 601 602 603 604 605 606 607 608 609 610 611 612 613 614 615 616 617 618 619 620 621 622 623 624 625 626 627 628 629 630 631 632 633 634 635 636 637 638 639 640 641 642 643 644 645 646 647 648 649 650 651 652 653 654 655 656 657 658 659 660 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672 673 674 675 676 677 678 679 680 681 682 683 684 685 686 687 688 689 690 691 692 693 694 695 696 697 698 699 700 701 702 703 704 705 706 707 708 709 710 711 712 713 714 715 716 717 718 719 720 721 722 723 724 725 726 727 728 729 730 731 732 733 734 735 736 737 738 739 740 741 742 743 744 745 746 747 748 749 750 751 752 753 754 755 756 757 758 759 760 761 762 763 764 765 766 767 768 769 770 771 772 773 774 775 776 777 778 779 780 781 782 783 784 785 786 787 788 789 790 791 792 793 794 795 796 797 798 799 800 801 802 803 804 805 806 807 808 809 810 811 812 813 814 815 816 817 818 819 820 821 822 823 824 825 826 827 828 829 830 831 832 833 834 835 836 837 838 839 840 841 842 843 844 845 846 847 848 849 850 851 852 853 854 855 856 857 858 859 861 862 863 864 865 866 867 868 869 870 871 872 873 874 875 876 877 878 879 880 881 882 883 884 885 886 887 888 889 890 891 892 893 894 895 896 897 898 899 900 901 902 903 904 905 906 907 908 909 910 911 912 913 914 915 916 917 918 919 920 921 922 923 924 925 926 927 928 929 930 931 932 933 934 935 936 937 938 939 940 941 942 943 944 945 946 947 948 949 950 951 952 953 954 955 956 957 958 959 960 961 962 963 964 965 966 967 968 969 970 971 972 973 974 975 976 977 978 979 980 981 982 983 984 985 986 987 988 989 990 991 992 993 994 995 996 997 998 999 1000 1001 1002 1003 1004 1005 1006 1007 1008 1009 1010 1011 1012 1013 1014 1015 1016 1017 1018 1019 1020 1021 1022 1023 1024 1025 1026 1027 1028 1029 1030 1031 1032 1033 1034 1035 1036 1037 1038 1039 1040 1041 1042 1043 1044 1045 1046 1047 1048 1049 1050 1051 1052 1053 1054 1055 1056 1057 1058 1059 1060 1061 1062 1063 1064 1065 1066 1067 1068 1069 1070 1071 1072 1073 1074 1075 1076 1077 1078 1079 1080 1081 1082 1083 1084 1085 1086 1087 1088 1089 1090 1091 1092 1093 1094 1095 1096 1097 1098 1099 1100 1101 1102 1103 1104 1105 1106 1107 1108 1109 1110 1111 1112 1113 1114 1115 1116 1117 1118 1119 1120 1121 1122 1123 1124 1125 1126 1127 1128 1129 1130 1131 1132 1133 1134 1135 1136 1137 1138 1139 1140 1141 1142 1143 1144 1145 1146 1147 1148 1149 1150 1151 1152 1153 1154 1155 1156 1157 1158 1159 1160 1161 1162 1163 1164 1165 1166 1167 1168 1169 1170 1171 1172 1173 1174 1175 1176 1177 1178 1179 1180 1181 1182 1183 1184 1185 1186 1187 1188 1189 1190 1191 1192 1193 1194 1195 1196 1197 1198 1199 1200 1201 1202 1203 1204 1205 1206 1207 1208 1209 1210 1211 1212 1213 1214 1215 1216 1217 1218 1219 1220 1221 1222 1223 1224 1225 1226 1227 1228 1229 1230 1231 1232 1233 1234 1235 1236 1237 1238 1239 1240 1241 1242 1243 1244 1245 1246 1247 1248 1249 1250 1251 1252 1253 1254 1255 1256 1257 1258 1259 1260 1261 1262 1263 1264 1265 1266 1267 1268 1269 1270 1271 1272 1273 1274 1275 1276 1277 1278 1279 1280 1281 1282 1283 1284 1285 1286 1287 1288 1289 1290 1291 1292 1293 1294 1295 1296 1297 1298 1299 1300 1301 1302 1303 1304 1305 1306 1307 1308 1309 1310 1311 1312 1313 1314 1315 1316 1317 1318 1319 1320 1321 1322 1323 1324 1325 1326 1327 1328 1329 1330 1331 1332 1333 1334 1335 1336 1337 1338 1339 1340 1341 1342 1343 1344 1345 1346 1347 1348 1349 1350 1351 1352 1353 1354 1355 1356 1357 1358 1359 1360 1361 1362 1363 1364 1365 1366 1367 1368 1369 1370 1371 1372 1373 1374 1375 1376 1377 1378 1379 1380 1381 1382 1383 1384 1385 1386 1387 1388 1389 1390 1391 1392 1393 1394 1395 1396 1397 1398 1399 1400 1401 1402 1403 1404 1405 1406 1407 1408 1409 1410 1411 1412 1413 1414 1415 1416 1417 1418 1419 1420 1421 1422 1423 1424 1425 1426 1427 1428 1429 1430 1431 1432 1433 1434 1435 1436 1437 1438 1439 1440 1441 1442 1443 1444 1445 1446 1447 1448 1449 1450 1451 1452 1453 1454 1455 1456 1457 1458 1459 1461 1462 1463 1464 1465 1466 1467 1468 1469 1470 1471 1472 1473 1474 1475 1476 1477 1478 1479 1480 1481 1482 1483 1484 1485 1486 1487 1488 1489 1490 1491 1492 1493 1494 1495 1496 1497 1498 1499 1500 1501 1502 1503 1504 1505 1506 1507 1508 1509 1510 1511 1512 1513 1514 1515 1516 1517 1518 1519 1520 1521 1522 1523 1524 1525 1526 1527 1528 1529 1530 1531 1532 1533 1534 1535 1536 1537 1538 1539 1540 1541 1542 1543 1544 1545 1546 1547 1548 1549 1550 1551 1552 1553 1554 1555 1556 1557 1558 1559 1560 1561 1562 1563 1564 1565 1566 1567 1568 1569 1570 1571 1572 1573 1574 1575 1576 1577 1578 1579 1580 1581 1582 1583 1584 1585 1586 1587 1588 1589 1590 1591 1592 1593 1594 1595 1596 1597 1598 1599 1600 1601 1602 1603 1604 1605 1606 1607 1608 1609 1610 1611 1612 1613 1614 1615 1616 1617 1618 1619 1620 1621 1622 1623 1624 1625 1626 1627 1628 1629 1630 1631 1632 1633 1634 1635 1636 1637 1638 1639 1640 1641 1642 1643 1644 1645 1646 1647 1648 1649 1650 1651 1652 1653 1654 1655 1656 1657 1658 1659 1660 1661 1662 1663 1664 1665 1666 1667 1668 1669 1670 1671 1672 1673 1674 1675 1676 1677 1678 1679 1680 1681 1682 1683 1684 1685 1686 1687 1688 1689 1690 1691 1692 1693 1694 1695 1696 1697 1698 1699 1700 1701 1702 1703 1704 1705 1706 1707 1708 1709 1710 1711 1712 1713 1714 1715 1716 1717 1718 1719 1720 1721 1722 1723 1724 1725 1726 1727 1728 1729 1730 1731 1732 1733 1734 1735 1736 1737 1738 1739 1740 1741 1742 1743 1744 1745 1746 1747 1748 1749 1750 1751 1752 1753 1754 1755 1756 1757 1758 1759 1760 1761 1762 1763 1764 1765 1766 1767 1768 1769 1770 1771 1772 1773 1774 1775 1776 1777 1778 1779 1780 1781 1782 1783 1784 1785 1786 1787 1788 1789 1790 1791 1792 1793 1794 1795 1796 1797 1798 1799 1800 1801 1802 1803 1804 1805 1806 1807 1808 1809 1810 1811 1812 1813 1814 1815 1816 1817 1818 1819 1820 1821 1822 1823 1824 1825 1826 1827 1828 1829 1830 1831 1832 1833 1834 1835 1836 1837 1838 1839 1840 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846 1847 1848 1849 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031 2032 2033 2034 2035 2036 2037 2038 2039 2040 2041 2042 2043 2044 2045 2046 2047 2048 2049 2050 2051 2052 2053 2054 2055 2056 2057 2058 2059 2060 2061 2062 2063 2064 2065 2066 2067 2068 2069 2070 2071 2072 2073 2074 2075 2076 2077 2078 2079 2080 2081 2082 2083 2084 2085 2086 2087 2088 2089 2090 2091 2092 2093 2094 2095 2096 2097 2098 2099 2100 2101 2102 2103 2104 2105 2106 2107 2108 2109 2110 2111 2112 2113 2114 2115 2116 2117 2118 2119 2120 2121 2122 2123 2124 2125 2126 2127 2128 2129 2130 2131 2132 2133 2134 2135 2136 2137 2138 2139 2140 2141 2142 2143 2144 2145 2146 2147 2148 2149 2150 2151 2152 2153 2154 2155 2156 2157 2158 2159 2160 2161 2162 2163

Click on any of the numbers below to go to a page of Lights of Guidance:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 561 562 563 564 565 566 567 568 569 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 590 591 592 593 594 595 596 597 598 599 600 601 602 603 604 605 606 607 608 609 610 611 612 613 614 615 616 617 618 619 620 621 622 623 624 625 626 627 628 629 630 631 632 633 634 635 636 637 638 639 640 641

Chapter 1
LIGHTS OF GUIDANCE A Bahá'í Reference File
Compiled by Helen Hornby

Copyright 1994 National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Ecuador

First Edition, 1983 Second revised and enlarged edition, 1988 Third Revised Edition 1994

Page 1
A. Administrative Order

1. Established First in America--Not American Production

"The Administrative Order of the Cause, though first established in America, copied as a model by other national Bahá'í communities, is not an American production, but is a universal system based on the teachings of Bahá'u'lláh. It is not simply by coincidence however that it was first initiated and perfected by the American believers."

(From a letter written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi to an individual believer, October 29, 1938: Dawn of a New Day, p. 202)

2. Cannot Be Identified with Principles of Present-Day Democracies

"...The administrative order which lies embedded in the Teachings of Bahá'u'lláh, and which the American believers have championed and are now establishing, should, under no circumstances, be identified with the principles underlying present-day democracies. Nor is it identical with any purely aristocratic or autocratic form of government. The objectionable features inherent in each of these political systems are entirely avoided. It blends, as no system of human polity has as yet achieved, those salutary truths and beneficial elements which constitute the valuable contributions which each of these forms of government have made to society in the past...."

(Postscript written by the Guardian to a letter written on his behalf to the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada, November 18, 1933: The National Spiritual Assembly, p. 26)

B. Bahá'í Administration

3. The Ideal Instrument to Make Spiritual Laws Function Properly

"He hopes you will devote as much of your spare time as possible to the work of the Cause, especially in impressing upon the believers the importance of the Administration and helping them to really understand its purpose and all it can achieve once they get it to function properly. In other words it is a perfect form which must be animated by the spirit of the Cause. It is the ideal instrument to make spiritual laws function properly in the material affairs of this world."

(From a letter written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi to an individual believer, June 16, 1945)

4. Purpose of Administration

"Your letter of October 19, 1973 giving a comprehensive survey of developments throughout Australia is of great interest and we commend you on your manifold efforts to promote the Faith throughout that vast continent.

Page 2

"We urge you ever to bear in mind that the purpose of Bahá'í administration is primarily to lend strength and directive to the teaching work and to promote the establishment of the Faith. It should never be regarded as an end in itself but purely as a means to canalize and make effective a spiritual vitality generated by the Word of God in the hearts of the believers.

"The dedication and zeal with which you promote the Cause of God are highly commendable and we will pray at the Sacred Threshold that the process of expansion and consolidation will be greatly intensified as a result of your efforts."

(From a letter of the Universal House of Justice to the National Spiritual Assembly of Australia, November 12, 1973)

5. Social Order of Bahá'u'lláh

"...To accept the Cause without the administration is like to accept the teachings without acknowledging the divine station of Bahá'u'lláh. To be a Bahá'í is to accept the Cause in its entirety. To take exception to one basic principle is to deny the authority and sovereignty of Bahá'u'lláh, and therefore is to deny the Cause. The administration is the social order of Bahá'u'lláh. Without it all the principles of the Cause will remain abortive. To take exception to this, therefore, is to take exception to the fabric that Bahá'u'lláh has prescribed; it is to disobey His law."

(From a letter written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi to the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada, May 30, 1930: Bahá'í News, No. 43, August 1930, p. 3)

6. Relationship of the Cause to the Administration

"Regarding the relationship of the Cause to the Administration: The Bahá'í Faith, as the Guardian himself has repeatedly and emphatically stated, cannot be confined to a mere system of organization, however elaborate in its features and universal in its scope it may be. Organization is only a means to the realization of its aims and ideals, and not an end in itself. To divorce the two, however, would be to mutilate the Cause itself, as they stand inseparably bound to each other, in very much the same relationship existing between the soul and body in the world of human existence."

(From a letter written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi to an individual believer, April 19, 1939)

C. Bahá'í Local Spiritual Assemblies
7. Assemblies Ordained by Bahá'u'lláh

"Addressing the nations, the Ancient Beauty ordaineth that in every city in the world a house be established in the name of justice wherein shall gather pure and steadfast souls to the number of the Most Great Name (9). At this meeting they should feel as if they were entering the Presence of God, inasmuch as this binding command hath flowed from the Pen of Him Who is the Ancient of Days. The glances of God are directed towards this Assembly."

(Bahá'u'lláh: from a newly translated Tablet cited in The Local Spiritual Assembly, p. 6, compiled by the Universal House of Justice)

8. Established in Every City--Counsellors to the Number of Bahá (9)

"The Lord hath ordained that in every city a House of Justice be established

Page 3

wherein shall gather counsellors to the number of Bahá (9), and should it exceed this number it does not matter...."

(Bahá'u'lláh: Kitáb-i-Aqdas, K 30, p. 29)
9. Purpose of Spiritual Assemblies

"...These bodies have the sacred obligation to help, advise, protect and guide the believers in every way within their power when appealed to--indeed they were established just for the purpose of keeping order and unity and obedience to the law of God amongst the believers.

"You should go to them as a child would to its parents...."

(From a letter written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi to an individual believer, September 28, 1941: The Local Spiritual Assembly, compiled by the Universal House of Justice)

10. Their Defender is Abdu'l-Bahá

"These Spiritual Assemblies are aided by the Spirit of God. Their defender is Abdu'l-Bahá. Over them He spreadeth His wings. What bounty is there greater than this?... These Spiritual Assemblies are shining lamps and heavenly gardens, from which the fragrances of holiness are diffused over all regions, and the lights of knowledge are shed abroad over all created things. From them the spirit of life streameth in every direction. They, indeed, are the potent sources of the progress of man, at all times and under all conditions."

(Abdu'l-Bahá: God Passes By, p. 332 and The Local Spiritual Assembly, pp. 6-7)

11. Assemblies Styled Differently in Future

"...Not only will the present-day Spiritual Assemblies be styled differently in future, but will be enabled also to add to their present functions those powers, duties, and prerogatives necessitated by the recognition of the Faith of Bahá'u'lláh, not merely as one of the recognized religious systems of the world, but as the State Religion of an independent and Sovereign Power...."

(Shoghi Effendi: The Bahá'í World, Vol. III, p. 108)

12. Assembly Operates at First Levels of Human Society

"The divinely ordained institution of the Local Spiritual Assembly operates at the first levels of human society and is the basic administrative unit of Bahá'u'lláh's World Order. It is concerned with individuals and families whom it must constantly encourage to unite in a distinctive Bahá'í society, vitalized and guarded by the laws, ordinances and principles of Bahá'u'lláh's Revelation. It protects the Cause of God; it acts as the loving shepherd of the Bahá'í flock."

(Message from the Universal House of Justice to the Bahá'ís of the World, Naw-Ruz 1974, paragraph 13)

13. Strengthening of Local Spiritual Assemblies--Nerve Centres of Communities+F1

"Great attention should be paid to the strengthening of Local Spiritual Assemblies which must act as the nerve centres of the Bahá'í communities in the towns and villages, promote Bahá'í education of the youth and children, and increase cooperation and participation of the believers in Bahá'í community life. Travelling teachers and all who are actively engaged in spreading the Message should rededicate themselves to their vital work and set out with

+F1 (See also: No. 1988)
Page 4

renewed enthusiasm. They should aim at assisting as large a number as possible of Bahá'í communities to stand on their own feet and become capable of carrying out the thrilling tasks which they are called upon to discharge in the Vineyard of God in this Day."

(From a letter of the Universal House of Justice to the National Spiritual Assembly of India, February 8, 1972)

14. Primary Purpose to Promote Teaching Work

"And since the primary purpose for which Local Spiritual Assemblies are established is to promote the teaching work, it is clear that every National Spiritual Assembly must give careful consideration to ways and means to encourage each Local Assembly under its jurisdiction to fulfil its principal obligation ... it is important that Local Assemblies share with the local friends stories of successes achieved by some of them, descriptions of effective presentations found useful by them, examples of various ways that a Bahá'í subject could be introduced to inquirers, or illustrations of methods which would enable the believer to relate the needs of society to our teachings. Such information and suggestions could be offered to the friends at Nineteen Day Feasts, through a local newsletter, or by any means open to each Local Assembly. In all these contacts with the believers, each Local Spiritual Assembly should impress upon the friends the unique and irreplaceable role the individual plays in the prosecution of any Bahá'í undertaking...."

(From a letter of the Universal House of Justice to all National Spiritual Assemblies, March 3, 1977)

15. Areas Under Jurisdiction of Local Spiritual Assemblies--National Spiritual Assembly Must Study

"The matter of the areas under the jurisdiction of a Local Spiritual Assembly is one which the National Assembly must study, and apply the principles laid down by the Guardian; namely, that within a municipal area, where the people resident in the area pay taxes and vote, the Assembly can be elected, and holds jurisdiction. Anyone living outside of that area is not a member of that Community, and cannot enjoy the administrative privileges of that Community. Although this will affect your Assembly roll, it will place the work of the Faith on a much sounder basis, and increase the number of Centres where Bahá'ís reside... It will challenge the friends to work harder to create new Assemblies and make up for those dissolved...."

(From a letter written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi to the National Spiritual Assembly of Australia and New Zealand, June 13, 1956: Letters from the Guardian to Australia and New Zealand, pp. 130-131)

16. Local Spiritual Assemblies--Created by Bahá'u'lláh in His Kitáb-i-Aqdas

"As to your query about the Local Spiritual Assembly, it is indeed a divine institution, created by Bahá'u'lláh in His Kitáb-i-Aqdas as the Local House of Justice. Abdu'l-Bahá has clearly set out its provenance, authority and duties and has explained the differences between it and other administrative institutions, whether of the past or the present. We refer you to the book 'Selections from the Writings of Abdu'l-Bahá'í sections 37, 38 and 40.

Page 5

"It is clear that while Local Spiritual Assemblies must supervise all Bahá'í matters in their areas, including arrangements for the Nineteen Day Feast, the observance of the Holy Days, the election of the members of the Assembly, promoting the teaching work, caring for the spiritual welfare and Bahá'í education of the friends and children, etc., they and the friends themselves must at the same time be good citizens and loyal to the civil government, whether it be a Tribal Council, a Cacique or a municipal authority."

(From a letter written on behalf of the Universal House of Justice to the National Spiritual Assembly of Brazil, April 13, 1983)

D. Formation of Local Spiritual Assemblies

17. Forming Local Assemblies--Obligation to Establish

"Shoghi Effendi feels that in any locality where the number of adult believers reaches nine, a Local Assembly should be established. He feels this to be an obligation rather than a purely voluntary act. Only in exceptional cases has the National Spiritual Assembly the right to postpone the formation of an Assembly if it feels that the situation does not warrant such a formation. This right, however, should be exercised if the situation absolutely demands it. As to the principle according to which the area of jurisdiction of a Local Assembly is to be determined, he feels, this is to be the function of the National Spiritual Assembly; whatever principle they uphold should be fairly applied to all localities without any distinction whatever."

(From a letter written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi to the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada, April 11, 1931: Bahá'í News, No. 55, September 1931, p. 1)

18. A Community of Nine Adult Believers Must Form an Assembly by Joint Declaration

"In reply to your letter of 28 October 1980 we are instructed to make the following points:

(1) There is nothing in the directives of the beloved Guardian or in the by-laws of Local Spiritual Assemblies to require that the joint declaration of a new Local Spiritual Assembly be signed. The way the declaration is made is within the discretion of the National Spiritual Assembly to determine, and it may or may not require signatures.

(2) Wherever at Ridvan there are nine or more adult believers resident in an area properly qualified for the establishment of a Local Spiritual Assembly, the Assembly must be formed at Ridvan.

(3) If the number of adult resident believers is exactly nine the Local Spiritual Assembly must be formed by joint declaration in a manner acceptable to the National Spiritual Assembly and the secretary of the National Spiritual Assembly will record the formation of the Local Assembly.

(4) When the Spiritual Assembly is to be formed for the first time and one or more of the adult believers refuses to join in the declaration, the Spiritual Assembly cannot be formed."

(From a letter written on behalf of the Universal House of Justice to the National Spiritual Assembly of Iceland, December 2, 1980)

Page 6

19. Duty of Every Bahá'í to Take Part in Joint Declaration

"The statement that it is a condition to the formation of a Local Spiritual Assembly that there be at least nine adult believers who are ready, willing and able to serve on the Local Assembly, should not be construed as giving any Bahá'í the right to refuse to take part in the formation of the Assembly. It is merely a statement of a factual condition. The National Bahá'í Constitution specifies: 'When ... the number of Bahá'ís in any authorized civil area is exactly nine, these shall on April 21st of any year, or in successive years, constitute themselves the Local Spiritual Assembly by joint declaration. Upon the recording of such declaration by the Secretary of the National Spiritual Assembly, said body of nine shall become established with the rights, privileges and duties of a Local Spiritual Assembly...'. It can therefore be seen that it is the duty of every Bahá'í in such a situation to take part in the joint declaration. If a Bahá'í, however, refuses to do so he should be helped to realize that he has committed a grave dereliction of his Bahá'í duty. In this stage of the development of the Cause a National Spiritual Assembly should not, generally, deprive a believer of his voting rights for such an offence, but should lovingly and patiently educate the friends in the importance of their responsibilities."

(From a letter of the Universal House of Justice to the National Spiritual Assembly of New Zealand, October 12, 1969)

20. Believer Must Be "a Resident" to Participate in the Formation of a Spiritual Assembly--Unusual Cases as Exceptions

"To count as a member of a local Bahá'í community for the purpose of forming or maintaining the Local Spiritual Assembly, a believer must be resident in that area of jurisdiction on the First Day of Ridvan. This is the principle. What constitutes 'residence' is a secondary matter for each National Spiritual Assembly to decide, but there is no exception to the principle that a believer must be resident in order to participate in the formation of the Spiritual Assembly.

"You will see from the above instruction that it is not possible for believers living outside the civil limits of a locality to count as members of that community. There are, of course, many unusual cases. For example, it may be that a university student spends some six months of the year in the town where his university is, and the other half-year in the home of his parents. In such a case it is normal to permit him to choose which of the two places is to count as his residence for Bahá'í purposes; one cannot count as being 'resident' in two places at once. It is, moreover, not essential for a person to be physically present to be resident. There are many instances of a sailor or salesman who spends most of his time moving from place to place but who is indisputably resident in the town where his family lives. All such matters must be decided by the National Spiritual Assembly in the light of the circumstances of each case within the general framework of the definition of 'residence' that it adopts. Such a definition must, of course, be a reasonable one, otherwise the principle would be nullified."

(From a letter of the Universal House of Justice to the National Spiritual Assembly of France, September 18, 1985)

21. Re-Formation by Election or Joint Declaration--Refusal of a Believer to Participate Does Not Prevent Re-Forming Assembly

"In subsequent years the Assembly must be re-formed each Ridvan, either by

Page 7

election, if the number of voting believers exceeds nine, or by joint declaration if the number is exactly nine. The failure or refusal of a believer to take part in the joint declaration would not be a bar to the re-formation of the Assembly.

"Where the number of voting believers resident in a community falls below nine during the course of a year, the Local Spiritual Assembly is not automatically dissolved; it can continue in existence so long as the National Spiritual Assembly has the hope and expectation of being able to restore the number, by enrolment or pioneers. If, however, the number is not restored by the following Ridvan, the Assembly will lapse."

(From a letter written on behalf of the Universal House of Justice to the National Spiritual Assembly of Canada, July 22, 1981)

22. Circumstances Under which an Assembly Should Not Be Immediately Dissolved

"He feels that where the dissolution of an Assembly is in question each case should be treated separately in this sense, that if a member moves away permanently, leaving less than 9 to function, the Spiritual Assembly should not immediately be dissolved if they, its members, see an immediate remedy in view; in other words if they are going to confirm soon, or receive within a reasonable length of time, someone to take the person's place, they need not give up Assembly status. If they do, for insurmountable reason, fall below Assembly status, then they can only be reconstituted on April 21st. Also if certain members temporarily absent themselves from meetings there is no need to dissolve the Assembly; on the contrary the reluctant ones should be educated and encouraged to reassume their spiritual obligations as believers. A Spiritual Assembly is not based on 9 people being available for every single meeting but on 9 resident Bahá'ís doing their best to discharge their duty to the Spiritual Assembly when they are not prevented by illness or absence or some legitimate reason for doing so."

(From a letter written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi to the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada, March 31, 1945)

23. Members of Lapsed Assembly Are Responsible to Notify National Secretary

"...any Assembly which is dissolved must immediately report to the national secretary, who must always keep an up-to-date list of Assemblies. Any dissolved Assembly cannot be reconstituted until the time of election in April...."

(From a letter written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi to the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada, April 13, 1944: The Covenant and Administration, p. 62)

24. Spiritual Assembly Jurisdictions Changes As Civil Units Are Modified

"The general principle is that Local Spiritual Assemblies may be formed in the smallest civil administrative units of the country. If these areas are enlarged or reduced in size by the Government the area of jurisdiction of the Local Spiritual Assembly should likewise be changed."

(From a letter of the Universal House of Justice to the National Spiritual Assembly of Zambia, June 8, 1978)

25. Assemblies Cannot Be Formed in Prison

"...the Hands of the Cause residing in the Holy Land have shared with us

Page 8

a portion of the February 3rd letter of ... referring to teaching in the prison in ... and to the formation of Local Assemblies in cell blocks. While this teaching work is commendable those who accept Bahá'u'lláh under these conditions cannot undertake administrative responsibilities, nor can Local Assemblies be formed in prisons. However, they may observe Nineteen Day Feasts, Bahá'í Holy Days, and other Bahá'í events. When they return to their own communities they may participate in administrative affairs as well."

(From a letter of the Universal House of Justice to the National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador, February 9, 1972: Extract from a letter written to another National Spiritual Assembly, June 11, 1964)

26. Qualifications of Assembly Members--Subject to Human Limitations

"With reference to your next question concerning the qualifications of the members of the Spiritual Assembly: There is a distinction of fundamental importance which should be always remembered in this connection, and this is between the Spiritual Assembly as an institution, and the persons who compose it. These are by no means supposed to be perfect, nor can they be considered as being inherently superior to the rest of their fellow believers. It is precisely because they are subject to the same human limitations that characterize the other members of the community that they have to be elected every year. The existence of elections is a sufficient indication that Assembly members, though forming part of an institution that is divine and perfect, are nevertheless themselves imperfect. But this does not necessarily imply that their judgment is defective."

(From a letter written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi to an individual believer, November 15, 1935)

27. Qualifications Outlined Applicable to Anyone Elected

"In regard to your question about qualifications of delegates and Assembly members: The qualifications which he outlines are really applicable to anyone we elect to a Bahá'í office, whatever its nature. But these are only an indication, they do not mean people who don't fulfill them cannot be elected to office. We must aim as high as we can."

(From a letter written on behalf of the Guardian to the National Spiritual Assembly of the British Isles, October 24, 1947: The Spiritual Character of Bahá'í Elections, p. 3)

28. Auxiliary Board Members, Eligibility of

"All adult Bahá'ís, including members of the Auxiliary Board, are eligible to vote in elections for delegates or in elections for members of the Local Spiritual Assembly."

(From a letter of the Universal House of Justice to the National Spiritual Assembly of Uganda and Central Africa, April 10, 1966)

29. Board Members May Serve on Assembly Temporarily+F1

"In all three areas of election, Auxiliary Board members are eligible to be elected. Therefore, a ballot should not be invalidated because it contains the name of a member of an Auxiliary Board. The basic principle involved is that the Board member himself must decide whether or not to accept his election. As you have stated in your letter, if the membership in a Bahá'í community drops to nine, including the Auxiliary Board member resident there, the Auxiliary

+F1 (See also: Nos. 91-92)
Page 9

Board member may serve temporarily as a member of the Assembly to preserve its Assembly status."

(From a letter of the Universal House of Justice to the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States, March 25, 1966, cited in the compilation, Auxiliary Board Members)

30. Annual Elections Provide Opportunity to Remedy Defects the Assembly May Suffer

"For as Abdu'l-Bahá has repeatedly emphasized Bahá'í Assemblies are under the guidance and protection of God. The elections, specially when annual, give the community a good opportunity to remedy any defect or imperfection from which the Assembly may suffer as a result of the actions of its members. Thus a safe method has been established whereby the quality of membership in Bahá'í Assemblies can be continually raised and improved. But, as already stated, the institution of the Spiritual Assembly should under no circumstances be identified with, or be estimated merely through, the personal qualifications of the members that compose it."

(From a letter written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi to an individual believer, November 15, 1935)

31. Absence of Nomination in Bahá'í Elections--A Distinguishing Feature

"As to the practice of nomination in Bahá'í elections, this the Guardian firmly believes to be in fundamental disaccord with the spirit which should animate and direct all elections held by the Bahá'ís, be they of a local or national character and importance. It is, indeed, the absence of such a practice that constitutes the distinguishing feature and the marked superiority of the Bahá'í electoral methods over those commonly associated with political parties and factions. The practice of nomination being thus contrary to the spirit of Bahá'í Administration should be totally discarded by all the friends. For otherwise the freedom of the Bahá'í elector in choosing the members of any Bahá'í Assembly will be seriously endangered, leaving the way open for the domination of personalities. Not only that, but the mere act of nomination leads eventually to the formation of parties--a thing which is totally alien to the spirit of the Cause."

(From a letter written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi to an individual believer, February 4, 1935)

32. Bahá'í Electoral Procedures Develop Spirit of Responsibility

"In addition to these serious dangers, the practice of nomination has the great disadvantage of killing in the believer the spirit of initiative, and of self-development. Bahá'í electoral procedures and methods have, indeed, for one of their essential purposes the development in every believer of the spirit of responsibility. By emphasizing the necessity of maintaining his full freedom in the elections, they make it incumbent upon him to become an active and well-informed member of the Bahá'í community in which he lives."


33. Freedom of Believers to Choose--Should Be Choicest, Most Varied Elements

"...I do not feel it to be in keeping with the spirit of the Cause to impose any limitation upon the freedom of the believers to choose those of any race,

Page 10

nationality or temperament, who best combine the essential qualifications for membership of administrative institutions. They should disregard personalities and concentrate their attention on the qualities and requirements of office, without prejudice, passion or partiality. The Assembly should be representative of the choicest and most varied and capable elements in every Bahá'í community."

(From a letter of the Guardian to an individual believer, August 11, 1933: The Spiritual Character of Bahá'í Elections, p. 3)

34. Believers Should Become Intelligent, Well-Informed and Responsible Electors+F1

"To be able to make a wise choice at the election time, it is necessary for him to be in close and continued contact with all of his fellow-believers, to keep in touch with all local activities, be they teaching, administrative or otherwise, and to fully and whole-heartedly participate in the affairs of the local as well as national committees and assemblies in his country. It is only in this way that a believer can develop a true social consciousness, and acquire a true sense of responsibility in matters affecting the interests of the Cause. Bahá'í community life thus makes it a duty for every loyal and faithful believer to become an intelligent, well-informed and responsible elector, and also gives him the opportunity of raising himself to such a station. And since the practice of nomination hinders the development of such qualities in the believer, and in addition leads to corruption and partisanship, it has to be entirely discarded in all Bahá'í elections."

(From a letter written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi to an individual believer, February 4, 1935)

35. Canvassing is Deprecated

"The strength and progress of the Bahá'í Community depend upon the election of pure, faithful and active souls.... Canvassing is deprecated....

"Bahá'í elections of the Community are ... sanctified from all traces of canvassing and plotting that characterize the activities of the perfidious."

(From a letter of Shoghi Effendi to the friends in Persia, April 9, 1932: The Spiritual Character of Bahá'í Elections, p. 3)

36. Reference to Personalities Before Election

"I feel that reference to personalities before the election would give rise to misunderstanding and differences. What the friends should do is to get thoroughly acquainted with one another, to exchange views, to mix freely and discuss among themselves the requirements and qualifications for such a membership without reference or application, however indirect, to particular individuals, but should stress the necessity of getting fully acquainted with the qualifications of membership referred to in our Beloved's Tablets and of learning more about one another through direct, personal experience rather than through the reports and opinions of our friends."

(From a letter of Shoghi Effendi to the Spiritual Assembly of Akron, Ohio, May 14, 1927: Principles of Bahá'í Administration, p. 46)

37. Avoid Intrigues

"Beware, beware lest the foul odour of the parties and peoples of foreign lands in the west, and their pernicious methods, such as intrigues, party politics and

+F1 (See also: No. 68)
Page 11

propaganda--practices which are abhorrent even in name--should ever reach the Bahá'í Community, exert any influence whatsoever upon the friends, and thus bring all spirituality to naught. The friends should, through their devotion, love, loyalty and altruism, abolish these evil practices, not imitate them. It is only after the friends completely ignore and sanctify themselves from these evils, that the spirit of God can penetrate and operate in the body of humanity, and in the Bahá'í Community."

(From a letter of the Guardian to the friends in Persia, January 30, 1923: The Spiritual Character of Bahá'í Elections, p. 1)

38. Election Day

"On the election day the friends must whole-heartedly participate in the elections, in unity and amity, turning their hearts to God, detached from all things but Him, seeking His guidance and supplicating His aid and bounty."

(From a letter of the Guardian to the friends in Persia, February 27, 1923: The Spiritual Character of Bahá'í Elections, p. 1)

39. Prayer and Reflection Before Voting

"...the elector ... is called upon to vote for none but those whom prayer and reflection have inspired him to uphold. Moreover, the practice of nomination, so detrimental to the atmosphere of a silent and prayerful election, is viewed with mistrust, inasmuch as it gives the right ... to deny that God-given right of every elector to vote only in favour of those who he is conscientiously convinced are the most worthy candidates."

(From a letter written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi to the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada, May 27, 1927: Bahá'í Administration, p. 136)

" the time of election, the friends should be in the mood of prayer, disinterestedness and detachment from worldly motives. Then they will be inspired to elect the proper members to the assemblies."

(From a letter written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi to an individual believer, June 7, 1924)

40. Procedure for Voting by Mail

"The same procedure in voting should be followed, namely, the ballot should be placed and sealed in an unmarked inner envelope and that envelope placed in an outer envelope marked with the name of the voter..."

(From a letter of the Universal House of Justice to all National Spiritual Assemblies, January 21, 1973)

41. No Quorum Required for Election of an Assembly

"No quorum is required in the holding of an election for a Local Spiritual Assembly. This rule also applies in the case of by-elections. The mere fact that less than nine vote for the members of the Local Spiritual Assembly does not invalidate the election.

"As you know, the National Assembly can always look into the circumstances surrounding a Local Spiritual Assembly election and use its discretion in determining whether, considering all circumstances, the existence of the Local Spiritual Assembly should be recognized."

(From a letter of the Universal House of Justice to the National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador, April 16, 1969)

Page 12

42. Bahá'í Elections for Spiritual Assemblies--Cast Nine Votes, Neither More nor Less+F1

"Concerning the question you have asked as to whether in elections for Spiritual Assemblies the electors should cast exactly nine votes, or may cast less than this number. Inasmuch as Spiritual Assembly membership, according to the principles of Bahá'í Administration, has been limited for the present to nine members, it follows that no electoral vote can be effective unless it is cast for exactly that number. It is, therefore, the sacred duty of every Bahá'í elector to cast nine votes, neither more nor less, except under special circumstances so as to insure that the results of the elections for the Spiritual Assembly will be effective and on as wide a basis of representation as possible."

(From a letter dated March 27, 1940 written on behalf of the Guardian to the National Spiritual Assembly of the British Isles)

43. Believer Has Right to Vote for Himself

"A believer has the right to vote for himself during the election time, if he conscientiously feels the urge to do so. This does not necessarily imply that he is ambitious or selfish. For he might conscientiously believe that his qualifications entitle him to membership in a Bahá'í administrative body, and he might be right. The essential, however, is that he should be sincere in his belief, and should act according to the dictates of his conscience. Moreover, membership in an assembly or committee is a form of service, and should not be looked upon as a mark of inherent superiority or a means for self-praise."

(From a letter written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi to the National Spiritual Assembly of India, Pakistan and Burma, March 27, 1938: Dawn of a New Day, pp. 200-201)

44. Votes Confidential

"One's vote should be kept confidential. It is not permissible to make any reference whatsoever to individual names. The friends must avoid the evil methods and detestable practices of the politicians. They must turn completely to God, and with a purity of motive, a freedom of spirit and a sanctity of heart, participate in the elections; otherwise the outcome will be chaos and confusion, serious difficulties will ensue, mischief will abound and the confirmation of God will be cut off."

(From a letter of the Guardian to the friends in Persia, January 16, 1932: The Spiritual Character of Bahá'í Elections, p. 2)

45. Secret Ballot

"Let them exercise the utmost vigilance so that the elections are carried out freely, universally and by secret ballot. Any form of intrigue, deception, collusion and compulsion must be stopped and is forbidden."

(From a letter of the Guardian to the friends in Persia, January 16, 1932: The Spiritual Character of Bahá'í Elections, p. 2)

46. Results of Election Should Be Accepted

"...Once Assembly elections are over, the results should be conscientiously and

+F1 (See also: Nos. 80-95)
Page 13

unquestionably accepted by the entire body of the believers, not necessarily because they represent the voice of truth or the will of Bahá'u'lláh, but for the supreme purpose of maintaining unity and harmony in the Community. Besides, the acceptance of majority vote is the only effective and practical way of settling deadlocks in elections. No other solution is indeed possible."

(From a letter written on behalf of the Guardian to an individual believer, July 10, 1939)

47. Breaking of Tie Votes

"Regarding your question about the breaking of tie votes, a balloting to break such a tie vote for members of a Spiritual Assembly may be held after the first day of Ridvan if necessary, but obviously the day of balloting should not be delayed too long."

(From a letter of the Universal House of Justice to the National Spiritual Assembly of El Salvador, July 4, 1972)

48. If Enrolled Believer Withdraws--Subsequently Elected to Spiritual Assembly

"Regarding your last question, if, prior to local elections an enrolled believer withdraws from the Faith and this leads to the removal of his name from Bahá'í membership, and yet he is subsequently elected to the Local Assembly, such votes as have been cast in his name are disregarded without invalidating the remaining votes on the ballots. If, however, the process of withdrawal has not taken place, that is, the believer refuses on the day of election to participate and expresses then his desire to withdraw from the community, and yet he is subsequently elected to the Assembly, since his withdrawal is generally unknown to the friends, in such a case the remaining eight elected members should meet, consider the withdrawal, and if his name has to be removed from Bahá'í membership, a by-election should be held to fill the vacancy."

(From a letter written on behalf of the Universal House of Justice to the National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador, December 11, 1979)

49. Mass Migrations

"Local Assemblies cannot be formed any time during the year, unless it is for the first time. The House of Justice fully understands the problems you face each year in forming the ... Assemblies due to the mass migration of the friends during the pine nuts harvest. However, the Assemblies in that area cannot be elected before January 15 or after May 15, as you have suggested. We have noted from your letter that not all of the ... friends may migrate to the higher regions during the Ridvan period, which means that those remaining at home may hold elections. Those Bahá'ís who leave their homes and are absent during the Ridvan period may leave their votes with those believers remaining behind, who will on the First Day of Ridvan count the ballots and report the results of the election to the National Spiritual Assembly or its representative.

"If all the friends from one Spiritual Assembly jurisdiction go away to work at different locations and there is nobody left in the village to receive their votes, they may write out their ballots before dispersing and send them to the National Assembly or to any committee appointed by that body, who at Ridvan will open and count the votes and inform the Bahá'ís when they return home of those elected to the Local Assembly.

Page 14

"When the entire Bahá'í population of a village moves away together to a new location and is absent during the Ridvan period, they may elect their Assembly at Ridvan and function as a Local Assembly when they return home."

(From a letter written on behalf of the Universal House of Justice to the National Spiritual Assembly of Chile, January 1, 1984)

50. When Conditions Beyond Human Control Prevent Election of Assembly at Ridvan

"Local Spiritual Assemblies which have not been re-elected during the Ridvan period must be considered as groups. However, there may be cases when conditions beyond the control of the local believers exist, such as, as you have said, the Bahá'ís had left the community because of flooding, or extremely inclement weather conditions made it impossible to hold the election. In such cases which, by their very nature, should be rare, the National Spiritual Assembly may use its discretion in recognizing the Local Spiritual Assembly, considering it a group, or decide to hold the election of such Local Spiritual Assemblies at a later date when the friends have returned to their communities."

(From a letter written on behalf of the Universal House of Justice to the National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador, September 5, 1983)

Table of Contents: Albanian :Arabic :Belarusian :Bulgarian :Chinese_Simplified :Chinese_Traditional :Danish :Dutch :English :French :German :Hungarian :Íslenska :Italian :Japanese :Korean :Latvian :Norwegian :Persian :Polish :Portuguese :Romanian :Russian :Spanish :Swedish :Turkish :Ukrainian :