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Baha'i Scholarship Statements from the World Centre
Bahá'í Funds and Contributions
Bahá'í Holy Places at the World Centre
Buddha, Krishna, Zoroaster and Related Subjects
Centres of Baha'i Learning
Chaste and Holy Life, A
Compilation on the Arts
Consent of Parents to Marriage, The
Conservation of the Earth's Resources
Consultation
Covenant
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Criticism extracts from letters written on behalf of the Guardian to individual believers
Cultural Diversity in the Age of Maturity
Days of Remembrance
Defining a Minority for the Purpose of Resolving a Tie for Ninth Place in a Bahá'í Election
Devotional Gatherings, Selected Guidance concerning
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Electronic Communication with Covenant-breakers
Establishment of The Universal House of Justice
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Excellence in all Things
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Extracts from Four Tablets by Abdu'l-Bahá Concerning the Question of Inheritance
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Fire and Light Excerpts from the Bahá'í Sacred Writings
Functions and Importance of the Haziratu'l-Quds
Germany, France, Italy, and Switzerland
Guidance Regarding Bahá'í Archives
Guidance to Poets
Guidelines for Teaching
Health, Healing, and Nutrition
Holocaust and the Greater Plan of God, The
Homosexuality
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Huqúqu'lláh
Importance of collecting and safeguarding the Bahá'í writings
Importance of Deepening Our Knowledge and Understanding of the Faith
Importance of Obligatory Prayer and Fasting
Importance of Prayer, Meditation, and the Devotional Attitude
Importance of the Arts in Promoting the Faith
Islands of the North Sea
Islands of the South Pacific
Issues Concerning Community Functioning
Issues Related to the Study of the Bahá'í Faith
Living the Life
Local Spiritual Assemblies
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Power of Divine Assistance, The
Preserving Baha'i Marriages
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Psychology and Knowledge of Self
Redistribution of Wealth
Removal of Administative Rights
Representation of the Manifestations of God and the Master in Portraits, Photographs, and Dramatic Presentations
Reproduction and other Biological Subjects compilation
Reviewing Practice and Functions of Literature Review
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Scriptures of Previous Dispensations
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Significance of the Formative Age of Our Faith
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Socrates
Studying the Writings of the Guardian
Teaching Among Aboriginal and Indigenous People
Teaching The Masses
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Unlocking the Power of Action
Use of Radio and Television in Teaching, The
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Writers and Writing
Writings of Covenant-breakers and other Enemies of the Faith
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Baha'i Scriptures Part 2
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Baha'i Scriptures Part 5
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Baha'i World Faith Part 3
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Guidance for Baha'i Radio
Handmaidens of God - Baha'i Prayers for Women
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Compilations : Guidance for Baha'i Radio

GUIDANCE FOR BAHÁ'Í RADIO FROM THE BAHÁ'Í WORLD CENTRE From May, 1980 to December, 1989

Compiled by Donald R. Witzel May, 1990

"Proclaim with both pen and tongue My Cause. Cry out and summon the people to Him Who is the Sovereign Lord of all worlds, with such zeal and fervor that all men may be set on fire by thee." Bahá'u'lláh, "Gleanings from the Writings of ...", p. 310

"When a speaker's brow shineth with the radiance of the love of God that the heat thereof may be manifest in all your veins, your limbs and members of your body, and the people of the world may be ignited by this heat and turn to the horizon of the Beloved."

'Abdu'l-Bahá, "Promulgation of Universal Peace", pp. 273-274

"In connection with the radio work ... he would suggest that the main consideration is to bring to the attention of the public the fact that the Faith exists, and its teachings. Every kind of broadcast, whether of passages from the Writings, or on typical subjects, or lectures, should be used. The people need to hear the word 'Baha'i' so that they can, if receptive, respond and seek the Cause out. The primary duty of the friends everywhere in the world is to let the people know such a Revelation is in existence; their next duty is to teach it."

Shoghi Effendi, from letter dated July 24, 1943, written on his behalf to an individual believer

IBAVC, Cat. No. 90254 First Edition, May 1990 Cover: Susan L. McLaren

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Special thanks to Miss Audrey Montero P. for her help in typing and correction of the manuscript. Also to IBAVC Distribution for layout and general editing.

GUIDANCE FOR BAHÁ'Í RADIO From the Bahá'í World Centre Correspondence from May, 1980 to December, 1989

Introduction

This is a selection from the guidance received from the Bahá'í World Centre on Bahá'í Radio from May, 1980 to December, 1989. The most appropriate letters and quotations have been chosen by the compiler to guide the present radio stations in their ongoing development. For the most part the guidance takes the form of extracts from letters sent to C.I.R.B.A.L. (Bahá'í Mass Media Centre), International Bahá'í Audio-Visual Centre (I.B.A.V.C.), National Spiritual Assemblies or individual Baha'is.

The contents of this work have been divided into four major themes: Administration; Programming, Training and Production; Finance and Technical Matters. Each major topic has subtitles according to necessity.

The guidance of the World Centre was received from three sources: the Department of the Secretariat, the Audio-Visual Department and the Office of Social and Economic Development.

Although general guidance can be applied to all Bahá'í Radio Stations, sometimes the guidance destined for one particular station does not fit the distinct circumstances and situation of another radio station.

Also to be understood is that the guidance has been given in an evolutionary form according to the growth and development of each Bahá'í Radio Station.

This compilation has been prepared to help in the development of a network of Bahá'í Radio Stations which to a great extent share a common experience in their early development, growth and progress. The guidance given for their similar problems, difficulties to be overcome, and success and recognition in their communities is hereby made available and shared for the benefit of all Bahá'í Radio Stations and all others interested in this area of development.

The Compiler Donald R. Witzel ADMINISTRATION-- Goals 1

I. Administration

"The effective utilization of the radio and the continued improvement of its operation should always receive the careful attention of the Assembly."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Peru, dated 18/08/85

1. Goals

"The Assembly is reminded that the station's primary goal is to deepen the Bahá'ís of the area, while expansion of the Faith and upliftment of the people are further goals."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador, dated 17/11/82

"The evaluation points to many things to be done, but particularly confirms the soundness of the concepts of broadcasting introduced by Counsellor Raul Pavon, along with his perception of how to meet the ideological and community needs of the campesinos, including the legion of Indian Baha'is. The apparent success of the radio project thus far only underlines the obligations of your Assembly to continue this excellent endeavor, even improving the programming in both AM and shortwave, while remembering the primary goal of deepening the Bahá'ís themselves, not only via radio but via the associated teaching work."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador, dated 01/03/84

"You are urged to take all steps to realize the great teaching, proclamation and consolidation possibilities in Otavalo, so that you may successfully reach both the Indian and non-Indian populations of the region. The House of Justice will. pray for your guidance in discharging Your vital duties in the development of both station and institute."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador, dated 01/03/84

"In the management of an institution like the radio station, And another like the Guaymi Cultural Centre, there is much to be learned. You have done well in your awareness of the

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limited funds available; but you should consult fully on the Bahá'í positions of justice and equality. The House of Justice will offer its prayers at the Holy Threshold for your guidance as you bring this new instrument of proclamation and teaching to efficiency and popularity among the peoples of western Panama."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Panama, dated 19/08/87

2. Mandate of C.I.R.B.A.L.

"The House of Justice is happy to see the Executive Committee taking the initiatives called for in developing the radio and media work in Latin America, and urges Your continuing attention to the many facets of radio development now afoot."

Department of the Secretariat to C.I.R.B.A.L., dated 02/06/82

"The promotion of inter-Assembly cooperation of those National Assemblies having radio goals is a function of C.I.R.B.A.L., for Radio Bahá'í Otavalo and Radio Bahá'í Titicaca, cooperation between them and subsequent stations, as each becomes operational, is anticipated as a normal development and will no doubt include shortwave links and the sharing of programs produced by Radio Bahá'í Otavalo with the other stations."

"Radio-trained personnel from other lands should be encouraged to pioneer to the countries where stations are established.

Department of the Secretariat to K. Dean Stephens, dated 02/06/82

"Kindly continue to submit each annual draft budget or supplemental budget to C.I.R.B.A.L. for its analysis and consultation, for C.I.R.B.A.L.'s mandate is, among other functions, to assist the House of Justice and your Assembly in budgetary estimates, and also to oversee coordinative efforts, required among the group of Bahá'í stations now being developed in equipment, operating methods, etc."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador, dated 17/06/82

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ADMINISTRATION -- Mandate of CIRBAL 3

"It is important that, during this continuing development period of Radio Baha'i, the Commission of Radio and the station staff keep in close touch with C.I.R.B.A.L. members, hereby gaining that helpful collaboration which thus far has been a source of great satisfaction to the House of Justice in this milestone Bahá'í endeavor."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador, dated 13/02/83

"The allocation of two additional frequencies for stations is a triumph, but will require great exertions to bring the stations to operating efficiency, in which efforts C.I.R.B.A.L. should play a strong role."

Department of the Secretariat to C.I.R.B.A.L. Broadcast Division dated 02/03/83

C.I.R.B.A.L. is a field agency of the Universal House of Justice, its small staff chosen for their professional skill in radio and television. While C.I.R.B.A.L. has a purely advisory role, the proven expertise of its members has won the confidence of the House of Justice. C.I.R.B.A.L. guidance in technical matters should, in general, be positively received with the understanding, of course, that modifications may sometimes become necessary through consultation with those concerned and conformable with local considerations."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Bolivia, dated 23/11/83

"In responding to your letter of 7 August 1984, we would suggest that you prepare a short statement of what C.I.R.B.L. does, indicating that, as an international agency for the promotion of radio and media activity, it is concerned with Identifying experienced manpower for service in radio stations either on a short or long-term basis. Since appointment of radio personnel is the prerogative of a National Spiritual Assembly, care should be taken in the wording of the notice so that it is clear that C.I.R.B.A.L. is not recruiting people for service in media-related projects, but that it is seeking to aid National. Spiritual Assemblies in their work in media."

Office of Social and Economic Development to C.I.R.B.A.L., dated 09/09/84

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ADMINISTRATION -- Management by Radio Commission 4

C.I.R.B.A.L. Executive Committee members and its consultants are very busy individuals; their planned visits and schedules are made long in advance and mostly during times when they can be away from their regular occupational pursuits, and in all cases at great sacrifices to comfort, family and vacation. It would be gracious of the Assembly to accede to their timing and welcome their offers of service.

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Peru dated 18/08/85

3. Management by Radio Commission

"The Commission now has many tasks which in aggregate are of serious magnitude, and this work will extend for many years into the future. Your Assembly should therefore not only review its appointments to the Commission, seeking the best qualified persons available, but should also give to the Commission a relative autonomy of action under the National Spiritual Assembly policies established for it. The Assembly should neither be burdened with the details of establishment and operation of the station nor seek to manage the station development once general policy has been established. Overall supervision of this educational institution of the Faith is, of course, fully the responsibility of the National Assembly."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Bolivia, dated 14/02/83

When an Assembly appoints a committee to carry out any of its operations, it should leave that committee free to act, albeit monitoring its work and giving direction as to policy. If the Assembly intervenes unduly in the work of its committees, they may function poorly or fail entirely."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Bolivia, dated 23/11/83

"It appears that the responsibilities of your National Radio Committee are limited to programming for the Caracollo station. Having chosen the Committee -- which need not have National Assembly members or other busy administrators named to it -- your Assembly should permit it to carry out your defined radio policies, assigning to the manager or executive director the day-to-day operational responsibilities of the station. you could well benefit from the experiences of Radio Bahá'í Ecuador, which are easily

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available to you through Mr. Quinteros, manager of the station in Otavalo. C.I.R.B.A.L. advisers can assist in defining the functions of the groups involved, including those of the manager and his staff."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Bolivia, dated 23/11/83

"At present the radio committees are not well informed nor properly oriented to radio and its utilization; every effort should be made to train them and made them aware of their responsibilities and familiar with their functions so that they may contribute effectively to the success of the radio stations and the fulfillment of their aims and objectives. However, at this time of the continuous evolution of our nascent institutions it is not wise to abolish these committees, as it would impose an additional burden upon the National Assembly."

"Radio committees need not necessarily have authority over the manager; they are appointed to assist the National Assembly in an area of vital importance, and their limits of authority can readily be defined. The persons mentioned in your letter as possible members of a support group could well be recommended to the National Assembly for appointment to the radio committee. Their appointment would be positive contribution to the creation of a coordinated plan of operation involving radio committees, teaching committees and institute administration."

Office of Social and Economic Development to C.l.R.B A.L, dated 13/09/84

"In reply to your letter of 11 July to the Universal House of Justice concerning the management of Radio Bahá'í we are instructed to send the following comments."

"Your reasons for not appointing an organizing committee at this time are noted, and in any case your Assembly has the final responsibility for supervising the development of the radio station and the institute, including direct liaison with the manager and director respectively if it chooses. Ordinarily, however, it is not desirable for an Assembly to seek to manage major institutions of the Faith from a distance, and it is assumed that before long more satisfactory arrangements will be established."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador, dated 05/08/85

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4. Management Problems

"The problems of the station's first years should be considered as healthy experience. Always be mindful of the benefits the station will bring to the Faith and to the people of the Lake Titicaca area as it matures and develops as an instrument of teaching and service."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Peru, dated 19/03/84

"The House of Justice is also most appreciative of your understanding and assistance with the personal problems inherent in projects of this size. As the Bahá'í world becomes more familiar with radio and other development activities, National Assemblies will learn to manage the complex problems they inevitably bring along with their merits."

Department of the Secretariat to C.I.R.B.A.L., Broadcast Division dated 04/04/84

"Whilst the Bahá'í World Centre prefers to leave the choice of administrative structure of the Bahá'í radio stations to the National Spiritual Assemblies, suggestions of various methods of approach may be put forward to those Institutions. It would not be appropriate, however, to give emphasis to any one method at the outset, nor to suggest a uniform pattern to every National Assembly that has a radio station under its jurisdiction. It must be borne in mind that our Bahá'í radio stations differ in concept and operational methods from governmental and commercial radio stations. The Bahá'ís have to apply spiritual principles and exercise the art of consultation. Ideas such as those you have outlined may be put forward to National Assemblies as specific examples of how the basic managerial and technical responsibilities of maintaining a radio station may be met."

Department of the Secretariat to C.I.R.B.A.L., dated 08/10/85

"Patient re-orientation in all such matters is needed and it is hoped that the proposed off-campus courses of the Amoz Gibson Training Institute will assist in bringing about better understanding of roles and functions and thus leading to more fruitful and efficient performance by the radio stations in the service of the Faith."

Department of the Secretariat to C.I.R.B.A.L., dated 08/10/85

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ADMINISTRATION -- Management Problems 7

"Since the issues related to the administration of a Bahá'í radio station are part of the ongoing process of development of both the National Spiritual Assembly and the radio station, and because of the differences between various Bahá'í communities, continuous consideration should be given to the problems in this area ... Patient re-orientation in all such matters is needed and it is hoped that the proposed off-campus courses of the Amoz Gibson Training Institute will assist in bringing about better understanding of roles and functions and thus leading to more fruitful and efficient performance by the radio stations in the service of the Faith."

Department of the Secretariat to C.I.R.B.A.L., dated 08/10/85

"The problems of cash flow and technical maintenance are management issues on which helpful suggestions from C.I.R.B.A.L. have been sent to you in the past; and these issues can be dealt with at the workshops and seminar planned by C.I.R.B.A.L. for the radio station personnel, the National Assembly members, and your Radio Coordinating Committee. It is hoped that through consultation a workable solution to the difficulties, both those that are unique to Radio Bahá'í and those that are common to any radio station, can be found. Also, a clear understanding of the areas of responsibility, both individual and collaborative, of the radio Manager and the National Assembly need to be reviewed and revised according to current requirements."

Office of Social and Economic Development to the National Spiritual Assembly of Peru, dated 29/10/85

"Re his study. of management practices of (3) Bahá'í radio stations: 'The goal is to establish principles of good management for the stations, each maintaining its special characteristics. However, the formulation of enlightened concepts of personnel recruitment and management of remuneration scales, training, and advancement policies, will be shaped in the context of the Bahá'í spirit of sacrifice and service implicit in undertakings supported by limited resources of the Bahá'í funds.'"

Office of Social and Economic Development to an individual believer, dated 16/12/85

"Other management practices involved in station operations will, of course, also be studied and recommendations made in connection with supplies; travel; public relations; support

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ADMINISTRATION -- Management Problems 8

of Bahá'í events and projects; in-service training of employees; employment and use of non-nationals (pioneers); part-time personnel (including consultants); and volunteers; and measures to ensure that Bahá'í ethical principles shall be incorporated into all management practices."

Office of Social and Economic Development to an individual believer, dated 16/12/85

"The administrative structure of Radio Bahá'í should be decided by your community, and it is hoped it will result from the process of consultation. You may find that a structure that is different from other Bahá'í radio stations functions well, or you many need to try various possibilities until you discover what fits your needs. Each community is unique and the organization of an enterprise such as a radio station should be a reflection of the spiritual condition of the community and an example of unity in the Cause of God."

Office of Social and Economic Development to the National Spiritual Assembly of Peru, dated 17/07/86

"While it is true that a National Assembly has jurisdiction over all Bahá'í affairs within its national boundaries, with obligation to monitor budgets and finances in order to safeguard the fiscal integrity of its institutions, it is usually not practical for the Assembly itself to seek; to administer either the operations or the finances of an institution such as a school or a radio station. Indeed, National Assembly administration is likely to slow down the functioning of its subsidiaries, and therefore, a level of autonomy is desirable for such institutions, in this case the radio station."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Liberia, dated 24/07/88

"As for station management, the National Assembly should delegate responsibility primarily to the coordinator to carry out the general program which he has prepared and presented, and which the Assembly has approved. The Assembly

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ADMINISTRATION -- Management Problems 9

should not seek to administer the affairs of the station, but rather to monitor its progress through written an oral reports. This is the common practice of the other National Assemblies with their radio stations."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Liberia, dated 24/07/88

"The Liberian station has a very great role to play in the intensive teaching of the Faith to Liberians, and more widely to the people of Sierra Leone and Cote d'Ivoire. Without question your opportunities are limitless, and the House of Justice hopes to learn of your great advances as all resources are mobilized to bring about that long-awaited entry by troops. Its prayers and admonitions will guide you as you devote your energies to widespread teaching campaigns augmented and often spearheaded by Radio Baha'i."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Liberia, dated 24/07/88

"Re suggestions...related to the linkage between the Cultural Centre, the radio station, and the teaching and consolidation work of the Bahá'í community."

"In general and for future development, the linkages between a radio station and Bahá'í teaching, and the consolidation combined with cultural pursuits and social and economic development, need to be addressed in a very detailed and comprehensive manner and their merits clearly stated so that National Assemblies may then devise a pattern for the management of their radio stations to suit their special circumstances."

Office of Social and Economic Development to I.B.A.V.C., dated 07/10/86

"The International Bahá'í Audio-Visual Centre will send a copy of this report with recommendations to your National Spiritual Assembly. It is our hope that you will give these recommendations your very careful consideration. We were particularly pleased to note that among the recommendations presented to your National Assembly is one which closely links the radio station to Bahá'í teaching and consolidation, and to cultural, social, and economic development. We suggest that the National Assembly study the linkage to determine how the integration of these activities can be coordinated to serve the best interests of the Bahá'í

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ADMINISTRATION -- Personnel, Labor Laws, Human Relations 10

community and the entire region covered by the radio broadcasts."

Office of Social and Economic Development to the National Spiritual Assembly of Panama, dated 09/10/86

5. Personnel, Labor Laws and Labor Relations and Human Relations Among Staff Members

"Your payment of full social security on the basis of the minimum salary is satisfactory for the protection of the workers. Income tax provisions may be significant in the agreements for part-time employees who are also part-time volunteers, and your counsel will inform you of the issues of the law. The law seems clear on the matter of incremental annual increases in salaries; these in any event may scarcely cover inflationary rises in the national economy."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador, dated 30/07/81

"A question: Where are the participant women, so important in the work and development of Radio Bahá'í in Otavalo? There were some capable young women pioneering for the Faith in Puno; where are they now? None are listed on the Radio Commission."

The Audio-Visual Department to K. Dean Stephens, dated 03/11/81

"You speak of "nativization" and its development in the stations. Somehow an intelligent and non-frictional system of utilizing pioneers of skill and zeal must be devised. We must avoid the fear of pioneers, of outlanders and foreigners, and of outside cultures while encouraging and developing the local personnel. It is a challenging frontier of human relationships within the Faith."

The Audio-Visual Department to K. Dean Stephens, dated 16/11/81

"The House of Justice does not view the proposed solution to your salary problem as evasive, but feels it is based on fact, for service with Radio Bahá'í by the Bahá'í employee is not a purely commercial arrangement of working for an economic livelihood, but does contain a large component of service freely, and possibly sacrificially, given. This does not mean, on the other hand, that employees of Radio Bahá'í should be paid below their true need as determined by consultation. The management of Radio Bahá'í -- ultimately

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ADMINISTRATION -- Personnel, Labor Laws, Human Relations 11

the National Spiritual Assembly itself -- will constantly face the problems of escalating personnel numbers and costs, to meet which there will continually be fund problems."

"Here, as in other areas of its development, Radio Bahá'í must explore solutions which may well assist their fellow stations, this time in equitable payment scales compatible with the resources of the Faith."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador, dated 23/11/81

" . . . it is hoped that personnel management can be of true Bahá'í quality; clear policies for employees and volunteers need to be enunciated and made known to all concerned. No mention is made of volunteer personnel, although the work situation of those mentioned is not specifically given. Despite the problems inherent in volunteer service it should be encouraged and developed in order to maintain that Bahá'í spirit which otherwise may diminish."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador, dated 17/11/82

"The phased program of production, which has as one of its goals the accumulation of many tapes in readiness for the initiation of regular broadcasting, should be pursued without respite, in accordance with the plans agreed upon. The need for able and experienced personnel willing to live and work in Caracollo is an urgent issue, and the Commission for Radio must actively seek to discover and recruit both native Bolivians and pioneers. This challenge of adequate staffing should be discussed with the Counsellors for their assistance."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Bolivia, dated 14/02/83

"Re your report on the Bahá'í Radio international meeting in Bolivia 12/09. 'The House of Justice was pleased to note the the possibility of more frequent personnel meetings as these would serve to solve any broadcasting problems, to bring a unity of purpose to the station staffs and an understanding of each other's special concerns, and to create a mechanism for sharing programs.'"

Department of the Secretariat C.I.R.B.A.L., to F. Schiantarelli, dated 01/12/83

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"The detailed and lengthy internal regulations proposed for Radio Bahá'í in Otavalo.... While the labor laws of Ecuador appear to require regulations which meet their specifications, and while the six years of station experience have shown the need to specify regulations for the manager and staff, the Counsellors and C.I.R.B.A.L. members may be helpful."

"It is hoped that the regulations will not inhibit the creative activity of the staff, but rather will form a disciplinary framework for station operations, providing guidance to manager and staff alike while giving ample leeway for positive judgments by the manager and the committee.

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador, dated 13/02/84

"... the advice of the Universal House of Justice on the important matters of the employment of radio personnel. Some elements for you and your lawyer to consider ...: 1. that you may well have a number of persons who are volunteers, whose financial support does not come from or through the station and/or the Assembly, and those persons must be adequately described and accounted for; 2. that a number of part-time workers, who give scheduled time segments which are remunerated; 3. that the full- time personnel may include apprentices, trainees, and a wide spectrum of grades of employees These persons receive no remuneration for Bahá'í services as, for example, work with the Teaching Institute."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Bolivia, dated 23/02/84

"Naturally, the labor laws constitute the guide for the station's work regulations. However, it will be well for your Assembly to consult with Manager Marcelo Quinteros in Otavalo, in order to ascertain the personnel practices of that station. Some excerpts from letters concerning Radio Bahá'í Ecuador may be helpful and are attached although they are not necessarily completely relevant to Bolivia."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Bolivia, dated 23/02/84

"Re your letter of 26 November 1984 giving suggestions about personnel for the proposed radio station in Liberia. A letter was sent to the National Spiritual Assembly of Liberia conveying some comments in respect of some of their

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plans and advising them to begin the process of identifying people from Liberia for staffing and managing the radio station. Recruitment of personnel from external sources must be considered when the National Assembly is satisfied that no local person possessing the required abilities is available. It may be necessary to conduct several training sessions when selected. The National Assembly seems to have thoughtfully considered the many issues involved."

Office of Social and Economic Development to C.I.R.B.A.L., Broadcast Division, dated 18/01/85

"It is hoped that the radio station staff will make every effort to maintain the enthusiasm of the youth."

Office of Social and Economic Development to C.I.R.B.A.L., Broadcast Division, dated 17/06/85

"The sacrifices of the personnel at the radio station who are labouring in the service of the Faith of Bahá'u'lláh in Peru under such difficult conditions is a testimony to their devotion and commitment, and will greatly contribute to the strengthening of the foundation of the Bahá'í community. The Supreme Body assures you of its continued prayers at the Holy Shrines for the growth and development of this important endeavour."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Peru, dated 08/12/86

A. Managerial Practices to Agree With Law

"With reference to improved management procedures, and particularly considerations of salaries, benefits, security, etc., your lawyer should make recommendations on managerial practices which agree with Ecuadorean law."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador, dated 23/02/87

6. Radio Personnel Contracts and Terms of Service

"...the advice of the Universal House of Justice on the important matters of the employment of radio personnel. your Assembly has apparently not consulted with C.I.R.B.A.L. or with the already-operating stations for advice in establishing acceptable labor relations for the

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workers at the new station in Caracollo. While recognizing that Bolivia has its labor laws which must be adhered to, your Assembly should immediately become familiar with the problems of management of a functioning institution having the unique characteristics of a religious cultural agency such as the Bahá'í radio station soon to become operational.'"

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Bolivia, dated 23/02/84

7. Personnel Contracts

"An initial probationary period of approximately six months should be offered to each new employee; if satisfactory a formal contract for a specific or an indefinite period of time can be offered. Such contracts should also contain the basic terms of service, and should be drawn up in accordance with the current labour laws of Bolivia."

Office of Social and Economic Development to the National Spiritual Assembly of Bolivia, dated 28/08/84

"The World Centre will be asking the three Assemblies having radio stations to comment on employees' contracts and terms of service, the administrative procedures adopted, the devolution of responsibilities, and the organizational structure for their management. When specific answers are received from the National Assemblies, these will be sent to you for your evaluation and comments. Eventually, detailed guidelines should be formulated by C.I.R.B.A.L. for approval by the World Centre and these guidelines would become standard for all Baha'i-managed radio stations."

Office of Social and Economic Development to C.I.R.B.A.L., Broadcast Division, dated 09/09/84

"Bahá'ís accept the principle that persons should be paid a fair wage for honest work performed. The payment of allowances, stipends or salaries to Bahá'í engaged in Bahá'í work on a part or full-time basis requires certain clarification concerning that remuneration, since such work calls for a high degree of dedication and understanding on the part of both the Bahá'í employer and the employee. Two fundamental principles should be understood at the outset."

"1. Service to humanity is a primary motivation for those employed by Bahá'í institutions. In addition, the attitude

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that work is a form of worship is one of Bahá'u'lláh's healing remedies for mankind which should permeate Bahá'í institutions."

"2. Bahá'í efforts are carried forward by sacrifice, since the financial resources of the Faith are minuscule by international standards. The Bahá'í community consists principally of rural poor people and the Bahá'í International Fund comes in part from their sacrificial gifts. Therefore the Bahá'í s must seek to extend the value of Bahá'í funds through their careful and sacrificial expenditure. At the present time Bahá'í institutions offer remuneration usually calculated to meet the living expenses of staff members. Bahá'í pay scales do not, therefore, necessarily reflect the pay scales of the society at large."

"Each staff member will receive remuneration that will permit him (or her) to meet his living expenses and those of his family; ;thus a man or woman with children doing the same work as a single person may receive more income that this fellow. Some staff members may be self-supporting, or are deputized, working entirely as volunteers without cost to the institution which they serve; many pioneers fall into this category. Others may receive reduced pay for full-time work, in effect volunteering a portion of their time. Still others will be paid the wages required by law for the positions held. Legally acceptable contracts are usually called for to protect those involved in the work agreement over the time period of employment; such contracts should adhere to whatever government regulations may obtain, but take into account the spirit of Bahá'í service."

"The administration of such a system of remuneration calls for loving concern on the part of the Assembly; and the sacrifices of those who serve in Bahá'í institutions merit warm appreciation. Great care must be taken to make clear to each worker precisely what is expected of him or her but making no distinction among workers receiving different type of remuneration, while establishing appropriate methods to assure fair dealing between the responsible administrators and the workers, and to meet contingencies. All staff members as a group should know the conditions of Bahá'í employment and service, so that the National Assembly, its committees or its managers will not be felt to be unjust in their dealings with staff members."

"Non-Bahá'í s may be employed in Bahá'í institutions, and it cannot be assumed that they will undertake conditions of Bahá'í employment which may call for service beyond the ordinary. Each non-Bahá'í should know clearly in advance

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ADMINISTRATION -- Personnel, Contracts/Volunteers 16

the terms of his/her service in the institution and is free to accept or reject them.

Summation from the World Centre, to I.B.A.V.C., dated 05/09/88

ln a letter dated 26/07/88 about a commentary on: the Vision of Radio Baha'i, the Audio-Visual Department of the House of Justice writes:

"In section 3 the principle of volunteer services is expressed well beyond what appear to be any practical limits for a full-time institution of the Faith living under the duress which is an inevitable product of radio services. It seems plain that the spirit of the workers should be that of persons devoted to the Faith and its purposes, who strongly wish to serve the Faith through radio, and who "volunteer" for that service. However, since radio is also a professional skill and radio scheduling makes very great demands upon the workers, it seems that a structure is called for which allows for 1) a professional cadre of full-time workers with a coordinator or managerial committee, 2) part-time workers who are paid for the time they need for those services, and finally, 3) a group of volunteers who are able to give part-time, possibly specialized assistance. These volunteers should also be considered as being possible recruits for part-time and full-time services at the station. We are afraid that a volunteer worker system will rapidly be transformed in any event into one of three tiers: full-time workers, part-time workers, and volunteers. If it is possible to indoctrinate the coordinators and managerial committees sufficiently well in the Bahá'í principles, then the concept of volunteer service will permeate the station, as doubtless you intend."

The Audio-Visual Department to I.B.A.V.C., dated 26/07/88

8. Personnel Volunteers

"The House of Justice is very pleased with the large component of enthusiastic volunteer labour, which speaks so well for the future of the project and for the zeal with which the local believers are greeting this development."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Panama, dated 21/11/83

"You have stated that teams of volunteers 'have hindered development.' A way must be found to integrate volunteers

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ADMINISTRATION -- Volunteers/Cultural Associations 17

into the daily schedule of broadcasting demands without their being seen as a threat to those receiving pay for their work. Certainly, too, some way of employing part-time workers needs to be devised, where their tasks are clearly specified in relation to the overall work load of the station. "In all cases, employees should be persuaded see the merit and the rare privilege of working for Radio Bahá'í as a service to the people of the region; and for the Bahá'í staff members it should be felt to be a service to the Faith."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador, dated 16/02/87

"The use of volunteers is appropriate at this point, but we hope that a good team of staff workers can be assembled who will continue on a full-time basis, while other volunteers continue to support the work of the station and provide a sizeable proportion of the programmes."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Bolivia, dated 30/11/87

"With reference to the conclusion of the UNICEF project, it is our hope that these materials will be made available to all the other Radio Bahá'í stations in Latin America."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Bolivia, dated 30/11/87

9. Cultural Association

"The 'New Era Cultural Association' was formed in Peru to act for the National Spiritual Assembly in handling public relations concerned with the radio activities there. It has signed an agreement with the Ministry of Education to promote literacy programs, but it is not known at present how far the advance programming has progressed."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Panama, dated 09/01/84

"As for the telecommunications law which requires that only Chileans may be the sponsors of the radio station, the alternative of establishing a non-profit corporation or association, or trust seems to be the correct path to take. The National Spiritual Assembly of Peru resolved a similar

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ADMINISTRATION -- Volunteers/Cultural Associations 18

problem by establishing the New Era Cultural Association, a copy of whose articles are enclosed for your ready reference. you may wish to communicate with that Assembly should questions arise during your efforts to form the trust or association."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Chile, dated 16/11/83

10. Development Projects, Non-Bahá'í Agencies

"4. Care must be taken to ensure that Radio Bahá'í personnel are not overburdened with additional ambitious undertakings and, therefore, their involvement must be confined to professional advice, programming and production."

"5. If additional specialized staff personnel are needed, they usually should be Bahá'ís recruited by Bahá'í institutions and trained by either the Assembly or the non-Bahá'í agency."

"1. Collaboration with non-Bahá'í agencies must based on the compatibility of their project with our aims and objectives or that our Bahá'í project will correspond with their aims and objectives."

"3. The National Assemblies must not feel that they are under pressure to undertake these arrangements."

Office of Social and Economic Development to C.I.R.B.A.L., dated 05/06/84

"Re the agreement between Radio Bahá'í and the Regional Department of Health in Puno. It is hoped that the comments of Mr. Schiantarelli will be given your thoughtful consideration so that this endeavor can be carried forward to the prestige of the Bahá'í community and the benefit of the peoples of Peru."

"The addition of this project to the other activities of Radio Baha'i, such as the literacy project with the Ministry of Education, the work at the Muhajir Teaching Institute and the continuing growth and development of the radio station will require a great deal of effort and

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ADMINISTRATION -- Development Projects, Non-Baha'i/Reports 19

attention. In order not to dissipate the energy and resources of the community, careful consideration should be given before taking on any further projects."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Peru, dated 01/04/85

"Re Agreement between UNICEF and Radio Baha'i. You are commended for your readiness to take on this project, which has the potential to be a valuable service to, the people of Bolivia and gain good will for the Bahá'í community. Enclosed are some guidelines relating to the implementation and evaluation of projects that may be helpful to you. As you are no doubt aware, in a joint undertaking such as this with agencies outside the Faith the importance of accurate and prompt record-keeping cannot be overstressed."

Office of Social and Economic Development to the National Spiritual Assembly of Bolivia, dated 25/03/85

11. Reports

"A copy of the report submitted by the Manager of Radio Bahá'í del Lago Titicaca was received at the World Centre and forwarded to this Office for acknowledgement and comment.

"It is suggested that the Manager, in consultation with the Radio Commission of Peru should design a report form and thus repeated reporting could be made under four main headings; Administration, Programming, Engineering and Finance. This type of reporting will provide easy access to relevant information."

Office of Social and Economic Development to the National Spiritual Assembly of Peru, dated 26/08/84

"The House of Justice anticipates the development of a systematic reporting routine by the radio station staff and the Committee which will permit your own surveillance of the project as it unfolds, and also will allow the World Centre to share news of your progress."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Bolivia, dated 31/05/83

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ADMINISTRATION -- Frequency, Application/Holy Days 20

12 . Evaluation, C.I.D.A., Share Reports

"The further evaluation of the C.I.D.A.-assisted programs is awaited with keen interest. The House of Justice suggests that reports on the project be shared with the staff of Radio Bahá'í del Lago Titicaca , with the Radio commission in Chile, and the committees in Bolivia and Panama for their information, stimulation and later guidance when they develop and broadcast similar programs."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador, dated 29/08/82

13. Frequency, Application

"The application for a radio frequency is fraught with difficulties in Bolivia, but the House of Justice applauds your resiliency in determining to press forward with a new approach. Consultation with Counsellors Costas and Khamsi, and with C.I.R.B.A.L. staff members Stephens and Schiantarelli, is suggested in order to initiate the new application when timely, if possible using well-placed Bolivian representatives for the steps of presentation. The success of the first two radio applications in Ecuador and Peru owed much to the strong and persistent representations by indigenous believers of those countries. The C.I.R.B.A.L. staff should be requested to aid in preparing the required technical documentation."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Bolivia, dated 28/07/85

"The copy of a story on your achievement of the radio frequency after two difficult years, sent to 'Bahá'í News' in the United States, suggests that your public relations committee should consider the World Centre as a primary recipient of such news items which then can be considered for 'Bahá'í International News Services'."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Bolivia, dated 02/03/83

14. Bahá'í Holy Days

"Your query of 24 June to the Universal House of Justice concerning the closing of Radio Bahá'í del Lago Titicaca on Bahá'í Holy Days has been received, and we are asked to convey its counsel."

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"The communication laws of Peru applicable to radio station operations are not known to the House of Justice. However, if the government of Peru does not require that the station be on the air on some inclusive daily basis, then your Assembly should not broadcast on the nine Holy Days of the Faith. The station is wholly owned by and operated as an institution of the Faith, hence you are obligated to fulfill the law requiring abstinence from work on the Holy days. It may be well to point out that each Holy Day of the Faith runs from sunset the first day to sunset of the second, thus significant portions of both calendar days are available for broadcasting. The station will, of course, inform its listening audience in good time of the meaning of each of the Holy Days and the reasons for the air silences."

"Rather than creating problems, it is felt that this confirmation of the religious character of the station will be a channel of teaching, a source of encouragement to the believers and a model for their emulation."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Peru, dated 25/07/83

"As you are well aware, not only should Bahá'ís refrain from work on the nine Holy days, but the shops and establishments owned by Bahá'ís should also be closed on these Days. If government regulations do not require the station to be on the air on a mandatory daily basis, Radio Bahá'í should not engage in regular broadcasts on the nine Holy Days. However, to aid the Bahá'í Community in its observance of any one of these Days, the station may offer at a particular time a special program suited to such observance. Those wishing to be involved in the production and airing of the program would be rendering a special service."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Chile, dated 06/07/86

"The House of Justice feels that this confirmation of the religious character of the station would be a means of teaching, a source of encouragement to the believers and a model for their emulation."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Chile, dated 06/07/86

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PROGRAMMING, TRAINING AND PRODUCTION -- Training 22

II. Programming, Training and Production
1. Training

"Your 'Television Broadcast Engineering' course for the Ecuadorian Frequency Office engineers was an excellent service and, it is hoped, such efforts added to your earlier course on radio advances will strengthen the position of Radio Bahá'í Otavalo through the generation of good will and cooperation."

Department of the Secretariat to K. Dean Stephens, dated 05/08/80

"The expansion of the training centre in Arecibo is a favorable development, and it is hoped that it can be used intensively for the radio committees, for the staffs of the new stations, and for the volunteers for the radio work in Latin America."

Department of the Secretariat to C.I.R.B.A.L., dated 06/04/83

"The work of the station is an important landmark of the Faith's progress in Ecuador and Latin America in general, and the House of Justice is happy with the evidences of growth."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador, dated 18/05/83

"The technical training program for prospective staff in Puerto Rico should be very helpful in augmenting the very positive steps of program preparation already afoot. By this time you should have received the letter of the House of Justice concerning its help towards the expenses of participants in this training. you are encouraged to write to Mr. Schiantarelli of C.l.R.B.A.L. in Lima to conduct the necessary workshops with your new staff and all volunteers on programs and programming. Mrs. A. Jorgensen ...very great help...your impressive human resources should go far toward assuring a happy initiation and operation of the station. With C.I.R.B.A.L. consultation and assistance the recruiting of outside specialized personnel should be considered, scheduled, put into action."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Panama, dated 10/10/83

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"The recent training session with the Committee members in Cochabamba should have provided abundant opportunity to assist them to incorporate tetter programming concepts into their work, and also to provide the committee with vital details of audio production which can only come from experience. The plan itself showed much serious work and useful program ideas, and was a favorable reflection upon the Committee."

"Your attention to the critical programming needs of Radio Bolivia in these early days when the personality and character of the station will be established, and during the subsequent early months of its operation, is of the utmost importance."

Department of the Secretariat to C.I.R.B.A.L., F. Schiantarelli, dated 24/10/83

"Mr. Michael Snook's offer to assist with the training of radio personnel is warmly appreciated. It is suggested that if he can spend 2-3 months in each of the broadcasting stations working and training the staff, this would be more beneficial than setting up a training establishment where only a few can be brought in at any given time. His presence at a station would have the added advantage of his working constantly with the staff under normal working conditions, advising and guiding them in every aspect of programming, broadcasting and management. Language competence in Spanish is desirable."

"A similar project can be worked out for an engineering specialist when such a resource person is available."

Department of the Secretariat to C.l.R.B.A.L., dated 17/06/84

"Training sessions for National Radio Committees are badly needed. In addition, constant information for the National Assemblies about radio and its role appear to be imperative. Both are basic to the fostering of good relationships and the creation of an atmosphere of appreciation and understanding of the use of radio in the minds and hearts of the responsible administrative institutions. you should consider drawing up programmes specifically directed towards National Spiritual Assemblies and Radio Committees. Such programmes might include the topics listed on the attached memorandum."

Office of Social and Economic Development to C.l.R.B.A.L., dated 09/09/84

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"It is important for the radio staff training facilitators to remember the difficulties of startup and operations in each case and to focus on improvements in the context of each radio station, as well as on the unique capacities and maturity of each particular Bahá'í community, both its institutions and the character of the believers in which each radio station operates."

Office of Social and Economic Development to I.B.A.V.C., Kepner's report from telex, dated 01/07/86

"Improvement will come in small increments over time, sometimes in very specific ways such as the technical operation of each station's functions. The development of broader issues, however, such as the questions of the goals of such station, its management, its integration into the Bahá'í community and its relationship to the Institutions of the Faith are built on a spiritual and cultural foundation that is part of a larger, ongoing process requiring great patience. The World Centre has not specified a standard management structure in order to allow for local flexibility and organic growth."

Office of Social and Economic Development to I.B.A.V.C., Kepner's report from telex, dated 01/07/86

"Training is another issue which the International Bahá'í Audio-Visual Centre is currently addressing on your behalf. There is no question, however, that a primary issue is the lack of Bahá'í training of the staff, so that the special services offered by the radio station are known and appreciated by the employees, and they may see their work as far more than a mere job enabling them to meet their economic needs."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador, dated 16/02/87

"In all cases, employees should be persuaded to see the merit and the rare privilege of working for Radio Bahá'í as a service to the people of the region; and for the Bahá'í staff members it should be felt to be a service to the Faith."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador, dated 16/02/87

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PROGRAMMING, TRAINING AND PRODUCTION -- Training 25

"It is gratifying to note that the Cultural Department is training the general staff in the preparation and utilization of teaching materials. The training function is a valuable, even essential, element of the operation of Radio Baha'i, one which should be methodically developed." "The active training programme for the volunteers using guest professionals should produce more effective programmes; such training, plus the experience in actual preparation and delivery of programmes, should enable the coordinator to discover the permanent full-time staff which will give the station its long-term stability. The social service activities of the station are praiseworthy, and it seems that the station- institute complex could readily become a community centre if not carefully controlled; in any event, the flow of visitors is a favourable thing for which a public relations staff person may be needed, as before.

Audio-Visual Department to the National Spiritual Assembly of Bolivia, dated 17/0/88

2. United Nations, Collaboration

C.I.R.B.A.L. will undoubtedly become more acquainted with the functioning of United Nations agencies as time goes_ by and, it is hoped, be able to develop a valuable collaborative relationship through the Bahá'í International Community and through or on behalf of the radio stations..."

The House of Justice is pleased that C.I.R.B.A.L., through its knowledge of United Nations programs, will be able to aid the radio stations in using United Nations materials and in supporting United Nations activities, and encouraged the steps that are being taken to achieve this. It appreciate a progress report from time to time, and meanwhile commends C.I.R.B.A.L. members for their devoted services in this new aspect of the radio work."

Department of the Secretariat to C.I.R.B.A.L., dated 11/10/83

3. Bahá'í Programming, Training and Broadcasting

"As for his strong feeling that the Bahá'í components of the Radio Bahá'í programs are too limited, this is an important commentary which deserves your consideration, for the first objective of the station is to assist in deepening the Bahá'ís of the area. It would be helpful for the manager to provide you with a daily broadcast log, if feasible, which should show how many Bahá'í 'cu�as', for example, are being

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used with the music, and how many hours per month, analyzed by content, the Bahá'í Faith is served by the radio."

(Note: Refers to letter dated 18 Feb 1982 from Eng. Parviz Mahdi.)

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador, dated 12/04/82

"The House of Justice has noted that two hours each day are devoted to broadcasting specifically to the Guaymies, and considers it advisable for more time to be allotted to these peoples for whom, in a sense, the station was established. Please keep this in mind for near future programming. It is also suggested that you share your programme with other radio stations, not only those in South America, but with WLGI in South Carolina and ELRB in Liberia, whose addresses are given below . "

Department of the Secretariat to Radio Bahá'í of Panama, dated 20/01/87

"The idea of a National Radio and Audio-Visual Conference is a good one, and each conference or meeting should have thorough planning, good display materials, and representation which should be identified, i.e., Station staff, members of the International Bahá'í Audio-Visual Centre, particularly Bahá'í teachers, members of National Spiritual Assemblies known to be interested and concerned, etc. This should be an item for the International Bahá'í Audio-Visual Centre's consultation."

Department of the Secretariat to Mr. Donald Witzel, dated 02/09/87

"It is good that we are finally homing in on Bahá'í programming in a methodical way. This had always been a major goal of each station, but the line between evangelical preaching and discreet and sensible Bahá'í messages of upliftment will need to be understood."

Department of the Secretariat to Mr. Donald Witzel, dated 02/09/87

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PROGRAMMING ... -- Bahá'í Programming 27

"Your journey was most helpful, and we hope that you will be able to undertake, with your colleagues at the IBAVC, a regular training program which will bring all the stations to a progressively higher performance level."

Department of the Secretariat to Mr. Donald Witzel, dated 02/09/87

"The activation of the radio sub-unit at Boca de Soloy at the Guaymi cultural Centre is a favorable step provided there is tight planning and efficient use of the personnel in realizing the goal of teaching the Guaymi people in their own tongue and according to their special needs. Future reports of progress in this very vital area of the radio functions will be watched with keen interest."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Panama, dated 24/08/87

"The participation of the radio staff in the government seminar on "Production of Radio Programs" was excellent, not only for the substance of the seminar, but also for its contacts with others in the radio broadcasting field in western Panama with whom links need be established. Our mandatory national network broadcasting at declared times of national crisis or emergency is fully understood, and is a condition accepted by all the Latin American stations "

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Panama, dated 24/08/87

"The training Institute for Guaymi women, and the program you were preparing on family education, are exemplary and should be expanded into many areas where the Guaymi people have need. The Institute on Radio held in Soloy confirms that the radio staff is mindful of its goal to uplift the Guaymi es, and that there should be wide and continuous conversion of these receptive people who should become the primary recipients of the radio broadcasts."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Panama, dated 24/08/87

"The programming reflects the mission of the station to deepen the Bahá'ís of the area, in particular the Mapuche believers, and to educate them in the principles and activities of the Bahá'í community, including programmes on

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Holy Days, Feasts and Bahá'í elections. We are delighted to note the extent of your Bahá'í teaching programmes in to the Spanish and Mapuche."

Audiovisual Department to the National Spiritual Assembly of Chile, dated 17/01/88

4. Bahá'í Religious Groups Which Request Radio Announcements of Meetings, or Have Volunteered Their Choirs for Programs

"It is assumed that already the station is clearly and unequivocally known as a Bahá'í radio facility, its identifying name being repeatedly mentioned, and that there is no confusion of the Faith with any Christian denomination. As for announcements of meetings and other events, this is a public service offered for many kinds of information useful to your listeners, and in general there is no harm in accepting such announcements for non-Bahá'í religious groups; indeed, such acceptance may dispel rumours of Bahá'í opposition to, negation of, or prejudice against Christianity. In addition, the station is free to use quotations from Christian, Jewish, and other Scriptures in its programs as it sees fit, with clear ascriptions to precise sources; particularly, it may wish to use passages which fortify the great truths of the ages and confirm the concept of the unity of religion. In any event, the station should reserve the right to accept or refuse any item."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Chile, dated 30/04/87

"With reference to the use of Christian choirs, the same principle of acceptance holds, with the following caveats. These musical programs should not be unbefitting to the Bahá'í Faith; however, although the contents may not be known, they are necessarily evanescent in character, and there is little hazard provided that such programs are not regularly repeated and do not become a permanent part of the programming. What is important is that presentations neither reflect on the Faith nor suggest to the listener that the Bahá'í Faith is an unfamiliar branch of Christianity. Moreover, the announcers will in any event, clearly provide the identities of the choirs and the titles of the numbers sung, along, with station identifications; explanatory announcements may also be made, and if necessary clarifications of Bahá'í positions."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Chile, dated 30/04/87

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"In all such associations with other religious groups your Assembly can feel confident in obeying the injunction to consort with other religious in loving fellowship and harmony, making clear the Bahá'í conviction of the oneness of religion."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Chile, dated 30/04/87

5. Sharing Programming With Other Radio Stations; Broadcasting Policies and Schedules

"Radio Bahá'í personnel from other lands should be encouraged to pioneer to the countries where stations are established."

Department of the Secretariat to K. Dean Stephens, dated 05/08/80

"The decision to permit the broadcasting of information supplied by Radio San Gabriel rests with the National Spiritual Assembly. The Assembly should formulate guidelines for radio station personnel, and set out in clear, concise terms the parameters governing the collaboration between the radio station and other radio stations in Bolivia."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Bolivia, dated 16/11/86

"Radio Bahá'í at Caracollo has its own broadcasting schedule and programme priorities, and if the information offered by Radio San Gabriel is compatible with Radio Bahá'í programmes, there would be no objection to broadcasting these programmes at an appropriate and suitable time. Radio Bahá'í may also wish to share its own programmes with Radio San Gabriel and other radio stations, as appropriate, and on a reciprocal basis."

Office of Social and Economic Development to the National Spiritual Assembly of Bolivia, dated 16/11/86

"The Bahá'í radio station should adhere to the principles enshrined in our Faith and firmly decline to broadcast any programmes which can in any way be considered as politically motivated and oriented. Such action on the

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PROGRAMMING ... -- Radio Bahá'í Seminar 30

part of the radio station will enhance its standing in the community and add to its protection."

Office of Social and Economic Development to the National Spiritual Assembly of Bolivia, dated 16/11/86

"The promotion of inter-Assembly cooperation of those National Assemblies having radio goals is a function, of C.I.R.B.A.L. As for Radio Bahá'í Otavalo and Radio Bahá'í Titicaca, cooperation between them and subsequent stations, as each becomes operational, is anticipated as a normal development and will no doubt include shortwave links and the sharing of programs produced by Radio Bahá'í Otavalo with the other stations."

"Nevertheless, it is also true that it is time for an intensive sharing of programs among the Latin American Bahá'í stations, and this has been given as an assignment to the International Bahá'í Audio-Visual Centre."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador, dated 23/02/87

6. Radio Bahá'í Seminar

"Whilst visiting the countries in Central and South America having radio stations, Mr. Sabri mentioned to the National Spiritual Assemblies the possibility of the Seminar and requested Assemblies to support it. The International Bahá'í Audio-Visual Centre may now extend invitations requesting that each National Spiritual Assembly send two people, one of whom must be the coordinator of the radio station; it should establish general criteria for the selection of the second person who ought to be closely connected to the radio station either in the programming or administrative functions."

Office of Social and Economic Development to I.B.A.V.C., dated 26/03/87

"Your report by E-mail of 8 September 1987 to the Universal House of Justice on the Bahá'í Radio seminar in Puerto Tejada, Colombia 17-29 August, has been received, and we are asked to convey its response."

"The House of Justice is deeply pleased at the result of the seminar, and hopes that the newly perceived communication of the stations' potentials, combined with an understanding of

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proper Bahá'í process in the administration of the work, will result in steadily improving sound quality and message content of the broadcasts, to the point where each station can be considered a model within its country, and each a unit in an integrated Bahá'í radio network."

Department of the Secretariat to Dr. Kurt Hein, dated 28/09/87

"The idea of national teaching conferences in the seven countries having radio stations, the programming training session in March for coordinators, and the initiation of station newsletters are all positive products of the seminar."

Department of the Secretariat to Dr Kurt Hein, dated 28/09/87

"The recognition of common needs and problems, of common learning objectives and deficiencies, and the sharing of experiences, provided a beneficial and intense period of mutual education. The analyses of the stations and their current situations are particularly helpful, pointing as they do to specific steps to be taken in the long process of developing a unique and productive Bahá'í mode of communication and programme content. Many of the specific insights will now require various actions by the International Bahá'í Audio-Visual Centre, by the Counsellors in some cases, and in other cases by the World Centre after consultation."

Department of the Secretariat to Dr. Kurt Hein, dated 28/09/87

"The report is highly informative, and deserves commendation, a praise which should be extended to all participants in this seminar which appears to have exceeded the best hopes of the organizers. The House of Justice assures you and the I.B.A.V.C. of its prayers at the Holy Threshold for your devoted endeavors in the path of the Blessed Beauty."

Department of the Secretariat to Dr. Kurt Hein, dated 28/09/87

7. Educational Programming

"With reference to your letter of 29 July 1987 regarding service fees, we hope that there was a fruitful consultation on this general subject at the Cali Conference. Although the immediate subject of the discussion with representatives of the Ministry of Education was, apparently, literacy courses

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supported by radio, the larger subject not discussed was the long-ago proposal of the Ministry to involve Radio Bahá'í Otavalo in classroom education for the campesino schools, perhaps some project will emerge from it. Radio Bahá'í should become distinguished ac a service agency, sought after for its coverage, popularity with the campesinos, and for its workmanly cooperation in projects of many kinds."

Audio-Visual Department to Mr. Donald Witzel, dated 21/08/87

5. Shortwave Radio Programming

"While it is clear that your Assembly must continue to seek to improve the shortwave frequency now allocated to you in order to make the broadcasts worthwhile for the Faith, it seems that you have not considered fully the difficulties inherent in the operation of an international shortwave broadcasting unit. Granted that Lake Cuicocha seems to be an ideal site for such a station's transmission and gives prospect that at 10 KW it could place a strong signal widely in South and Central America and the Caribbean, yet the initial cost of equipment, the added power needs and the necessity for international programming, as different from local contents, pose daunting problems for which your Assembly has not indicated ... prospective solutions."

"It seems likely that an entirely different program plan may be called for and, if so, this would suggest the need for a second staff for the shortwave operation. Doubtless, too, this would call for predominantly Spanish language materials selected for international acceptability. Further, statistics available on shortwave receivers do not suggest either the size or the specific nature of the audience which you may hope to reach. Not the least problem is that funds for such an expansion of Radio Bahá'í are not available at this time. In short, the House of Justice shares your excitement at this extraordinary tribute to your operation and human relations successes with Radio Baha'i, but regrettably feels the step to be untimely...."

Audio-Visual Department to the National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador, dated 02/12/81

"...However, before the National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador and the Faith should consider embarking on the expensive and exacting step of initiating a new international shortwave station, presumably broadcasting

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primarily in Spanish, there needs to be far deeper consideration of the two non-technical fundamentals: audiences and program contents."

Audio-Visual Department to K. Dean Stephens, dated 02/12/81

"The question of C.I.R.B.A.L. as operator of a future international shortwave station is intriguing, but of course National Assemblies can be delegated to operate international facilities, and a country such as Ecuador might well undertake a mission on behalf of its Latin American fellow Assemblies."

Audio-Visual Department to K. Dean Stephens, dated 27/01/82

"It is granted that we can build an international station of sufficient quality and power to reach far and wide, in Latin America and beyond. Whether we can afford the initial upgrading costs from 1 KW to 10 KW, and thereafter can profitably feed the hungry air hours with good programs listened to by audiences we want to reach requires far more analysis than thus far seems clear. Having an international class station sounds exciting, but it is an empty achievement unless we can be reasonably sure that we can produce the kind of programs the shortwave listening public will tune to, and whether what they will tune to is what we want to produce on behalf of the proclamation, teaching and deepening objectives of the Faith. Therefore we submit these questions for your response."

"1. Why should we seek more than Latin American penetration, i.e., South and Central America and some few Caribbean islands?"

"2. More narrowly, why should we seek more than immediately adjacent areas: all of Ecuador, Peru to the South (if accessible in view of the mountains), Colombia, Panama to the North?"

"3. Can we get along on a single language: Spanish?"

"4. Would it be a music, news and specials station. in terms of program content, i.e., high order entertainment with education, including Bahá'í education?"

"5. As for the music, what would be appealing: a mixture of the best of sundry Latin American and other musical stocks?"

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PROGRAMMING ... -- Shortwave Radio Programming 34

"6. As for the news, can we consider a "good news" program of what is being done in the world, especially in Latin America, which is good and positive, not violent, negative, political?"

"7. As for specials, what would be their range: brief reports of interest to Latin Americans, such as on "Green Revolution" agricultural headquarters in Mexico, the growth of literacy and other educational programs (chance to tout Radio Sutatenza, Radio Bahá'í itself, et al), all special topics fitting the Bahá'í principles?"

Audio-Visual Department to K. Dean Stephens, dated 27/01/82

"What is needed now, in addition, is the formulation of the usual phased activation plan, and also the submission u+ a tentative budget showing capitalization costs as well as operational expenses prior to initiation of broadcasting, and for the first operational year thereafter".

Audio-Visual Department to K. Dean Stephens, dated 27/01/82

"The program recommendations are those of a veteran production person and should be seriously considered by the Committee which, however, should design its own program plan following consultation. What seems necessary is to firmly establish the objectives of the shortwave broadcasts. for these programs do not have the local and area character of the medium wave broadcasts. Shortwave audience must be defined by means of surveys of shortwave reception in Ecuador, the availability of shortwave receivers, the habits of listeners, and the ability of the station to reach hoped-for audiences as, for example, Bahá'ís of the coast near Esmeraldas. Reception in nearby Colombia should be a subject of study and consultation with the National Spiritual Assembly of Colombia."

"With reference to the reporting of news, this is a special and difficult subject because of frequent political sensitivities associated with news items. Your National Spiritual Assembly will have to determine what kinds of news should be covered and spell out the categories. For example, such national Ecuadorean events of significance to the general welfare of the population as an epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease in the cattle, a rabies problem in wild animals and other subjects of non-political cultural nature, could be considered for purposes of dissemination by broadcast via the shortwave programs."

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"It is important to achieve optimal overlapping with the medium wave broadcast in the interests of economy and efficiency. For the immediate future the shortwave programming should not become a primary concern until it has been shown to have a worthwhile audience for programs fulfilling Bahá'í objectives "

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Educador, dated 23/08/83

9 . Bahá'í Programming Increase

"The format of the report is helpful and lends itself to ready analysis. Notable is the increase in specifically Bahá'í programmes, to 25 hours for the month. The percentage of programmes in Quechua appears to be rising, while the musical programmes are radically decreasing. Recalling original premises of station programming which called for far higher percentages of music purportedly for creating listenerships, it would be helpful to know of your current planning in this segment of the station's programs."

"Noting that the shortwave broadcasting programme averages 3.3 hours per day, the House of Justice is interested in receiving the overall plan for shortwave transmissions."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador, dated 20/10/83

"You are urged to take all steps to realize the great teaching, proclamation and consolidation possibilities in Otavalo, so that you may successfully reach both the Indian and non-Indian populations of the region ."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador, dated 05/08/85

"Nevertheless, it is also true that it is time for an intensive sharing of programs among the Latin American Bahá'í stations, and this has been given as an assignment to the International Bahá'í Audio-Visual Centre."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador, dated 23/12/87

"The report is lengthy and detailed, and shows the great energy being poured into the restoration of satisfactory station activity through the efforts of many volunteers

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PROGRAMMING ... -- Bahá'í Programming Increase/News Releases 36

under the coordination of Mr. Sabino Ortega. The array of programmes being broadcast, or in the planning and production stage, is excellent, and reveals the proper attention paid to the Bahá'í teaching and deepening work. May this flood of Bahá'í messages have a palpable effect very soon ."

Audio-Visual Department to the National Spiritual Assembly Bolivia, dated 17/01/88

"The wide-ranging activities of the radio station demonstrate an increasing energy in production and broadcasting along with many community activities which serve the entire region and its institutions. The airing of a greater number of Bahá'í programmes is a very good sign, but a judicious combination of musical and cultural programmes with those which are strictly of Bahá'í interest may well be necessary to retain a high level of listenership. Indeed some form of evaluation is encouraged, for the tastes of listeners and their will to listen to the station's offerings can be usefully sampled at regular intervals as a guide to programme planning."

Audio-Visual Department to the National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador, dated 20/01/88

10 . Bahá'í News Releases and Comuniques

"The inflow of communiques from people and agencies desiring announcements appears to be of commendable volume . Indeed, this service and its popularity can well be the index of listenership and station reputation, just as personal items are the strength of local newspapers. The organization of this service is of great importance "

Audio-Visual Department to the National Spiritual Assembly of Peru, dated 07/07/87

"The public service programmes, both broadcast and in the community will, regularly require much work and imagination, and realize other aspects of your goals; but we wonder about the propriety of reading news from a daily newspaper, even if cultural in nature, without obtaining permission from the newspaper, although this might not be noted if delivered in the Mapuche language, and perhaps this is the custom with rural radio stations."

Audio-Visual Department to the National Spiritual Assembly of Chile, dated 17/01/88

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"However, since these stations are also, and primarily, established in order to consolidate the local communities and individuals of the Otavalo area, and therefore to inform them of the Faith itself in its many aspects, there is no reason why Bahá'í International News Service items, suitably edited for local purposes, would not fit into the programmes even more appropriately than local news."

Audio-Visual Department to the I.B.A.V.C., dated 09/08/88

(Note:See 8.Shortwave Radio Programming: "Regarding the reporting of news...")

11. Musical Programmes

"You have indicated the nature of the musical programmes, which we assume are the bulk of the demanding ten-hour-a-day schedule, but, know that judiciously chosen music can be both a key source of popularity with your listeners, and also educational. It is hoped that a goodly group of enthusiastic volunteers will be recruited to increase the stations ability to undertake programmes of special interest, among other services which they can render."

Audio-Visual Department to the National Spiritual Assembly of Chile, dated 17/01/88

12. Teamwork in Disaster Relief Services

"Your letter of 10 June 1989 to the Universal House of Justice regarding the plight of the Pehuenches of the Mapuche zone has been received, and we are asked to convey its response to this volcano-produced local disaster."

"What your staff at Radio Bahá'í has suggested appears beneficial, and you are urged to undertake all such actions as may help to relieve the situation; indeed, it is hoped that the station has long since been enlisted in publicizing the needs of the sufferers. However, as you suggest, it is better to offer teamwork with government of private relief agencies than to seek to gather funds or deliver supplies yourselves. Thus far this is the first Bahá'í radio station to offer such a specific program of relief services, but it is a logical role for an institution of public service."

"Kindly keep the World Centre informed of the changing situation and of your own activities in this important opportunity for significant assistance to the stricken community of mountain people, including members of the Bahá'í community. It may be that the World Centre itself may be able to offer some form of help or suggest ways. PROGRAMMING ...-- Prod. Schedule/Field Record./Audience Part. 38

further aid the beleaguered Indian peoples. The House of Justice will offer prayers for your guidance."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Chile, dated 14/07/89

13. Production Schedule

"The phased program of production, which has as one of the goals the accumulation of many tapes in readiness for the initiation of regular broadcasting, should be pursued without respite, in accordance with the plans agreed upon."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Bolivia, dated 14/02/83

14. Frequent Field Recordings

"While it is true that the radio personnel have been able to establish only a sporadic contact with the people of the village communities, even those close to Otavalo and certainly those at a distance from it, such contact appears to have been primarily a matter of organization and not of substance. It should be possible for the radio staff, using the station vehicle, to visit the communities regularly, recording agricultural, health and cultural presentations with the local, perhaps indigenous, people. Thus, it is not essential that there be a development project to create the links which the radio station needs, but rather a more methodical programme which taps the resources and knowledge of the rural people. This comment does not negate the project concept, but rather encourages return to frequent field recordings."

"...In short, we are simply concerned that this most useful and imaginative programme, with whose objectives we entirely agree, is not allowed to burden the radio station beyond its ability to carry forward its important work."

Audio-Visual Department to the National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador, dated 30/11/87

15. Audience Participation

"The Yapuchiti programme is commendable and the station is urged to increase this type of participation by the listeners so that they may readily identify with 'Radio

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PROGRAMMING -- Development Projects 39

Baha'i. This can be extended into other areas of programming such as health, agriculture and culture."

Office of Social and Economic Development to the National Spiritual Assembly of Peru, dated 26/08/84

16. Development Project Programming

"You are commended especially on your originality in teaching the Faith to the campesinos by using varied 'Thought of the Week' messages shown in pictures in the rural newspapers, and on the personal contact being made with radio audiences through the responsive meetings in the Syntony (listening) Centres."

"In undertaking so assiduously the several aspects of a development project, 'Caminando Juntos' is strengthening its foundations and preparing to become a potent force in he Otavalo area, helping the rural communities with their social and agricultural problems, and guiding them to the spiritual highway of Bahá'u'lláh."

Department of the Secretariat to C. de Zuleta (Ecuador), dated 02/06/83

"The programs in health, agriculture, home economics and traditional culture which are being supported by C.I.D.A., always formed part of the broadcasting plans made by Radio Bahá'í Ecuador. C.I.D.A.'s relationship with the project is as a fund-granting agency only, ... There is obviously an element of prestige in such recognition by the Canadian government but its contribution to this Bahá'í project should not receive prominence beyond its due."

"The House of Justice wishes the various development projects in their communications to represent the spirit of the Faith working in the world. While warmly and regularly acknowledging any assistance given by non-Bahá'í agencies, we must always regard our Bahá'í purposes as paramount and ensure they are never compromised."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador, dated 21/09/83

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BUDGET -- Budgets and Funds 40
III. Budget, Finances, Reports
Introduction

"The study of the budget and financial reports should be regarded as essential to the proper management of the radio station. They are not meant to be immutable, but should rather be regarded as guidelines for planning and evaluation of the activities of the station. For management of the station the National Assembly must use wisdom in the light of day-to-day requirements and make wise and necessary financial decisions accordingly, referring to the World Centre if necessary."

Office of Social and Economic Development, Memorandum to the Universal House of Justice, dated 20/11/85

1.- Budgets and Funds

"The House of Justice is happy to note your Assembly's expectation that about $8,000 will be contributed by the friends in Peru during this second year when the station will be increasing its hours of broadcasting and its proficiencies in all aspects of its work and when the staff will be assisting in the work of the institute and in the teaching and deepening in the area served by the broadcast.

Office of Social and Economic Development, Memorandum to the Universal House of Justice, dated 20/11/85

"Copies of your budget for Radio Bahá'í del Lago Titicaca for the year 1982-83 were promptly sent to C.I.R.B.A.L. consultants K. Dean Stephens and Fernando Schiantarelli for their analyses and comments....The House of Justice has requested C.I.R.B.A.L. to provide guidance to you in such matters as budgets, and therefore asks that in the future you provide to C.I.R.B.A.L. Executive Committee members draft copies of budget submissions or of requests for support of sundry expenditures as your needs arise, in order that they may advise you and the World Centre."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Peru, dated 01/06/82

"In the future, however, we shall wish to have very prompt analyses of the budgets for our assistance. Each budget, moreover, should show whatever funds are being carried over at the end of the fiscal year, subtracted then from, the

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BUDGET -- Budgets and Funds 41

total requested in the new budget. As for the World Centre's holding funds for the yet-unfilled positions, deductions can be made at the time of the last quarter's allocations if necessary for personnel funds unspent."

Department of the Secretariat to F. Schiantarelli, dated 11/08/82

"Inasmuch as your Treasurer provides regular accounts of income and expenditures, and emergencies may occur, any discrepancies can be met at year's end when funds for carryover into the new fiscal year will be shown. In future submissions of budgets, Mr. Schiantarelli, Counsellor Khamsi or others can be helpful in advising your Assembly on the radio budgets."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Peru, dated 11/08/82

"It may be that you will find it possible to consult with engineers Mohebbi and Mahdi during your forthcoming journey to South America... The program of intensive maintenance and new construction as proposed by Engineer Mahdi in his letter seem satisfactory, but a coordinated program for all four stations needs to be developed. In this connection, C.I.R.B.A.L. is free to authorize travel funds from its own budget for the two engineers in the days before establishment of the Bolivian and Chilean stations, although the stations themselves should pay the costs of travel and services of engineers Mohebbi or Mahdi and provide for these costs in their annual budgets."

"The plan seems workable and, it is hoped, has been examined by Mr. K.D. Stephens and Mr. F. Schiantarelli for its practicability and cost. The summary of construction cost seem low, and there is no mention of the costs of equipment, furnishings, and such vital concerns as electric power. Moreover, we note an absence of dormitory space in the institute complex, space which other institutes find essential for housing the participants in courses and programs. In short, before proceeding, the House of Justice wishes to see a complete budget estimate which has been reviewed by the Counsellors, and which contains all elements necessary to establish and maintain a radio station."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Bolivia, dated 05/04/83

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BUDGET -- Budgets and Funds 42

"...your funds are limited and must be expended with the utmost care, lest inflation, plus added and unpredicted charges cause a serious overrun of your construction estimates. Moreover your station should plan for an orderly growth in the conviction that operational funds from outside Bolivia will not be sufficient for your demands if ;.our scale of operations is too large. It is the assumption, of the House of Justice that your transmission will be 1KW to 3KW at the outset, stepping up to 5KW when your station is fully operational and experienced in the personnel sense."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Bolivia, dated 16/11/83

"Your care in budgetary management is greatly appreciated and it is hoped that your increasing work load will not prevent you from continuing this excellent care. In 1983-84 the operational costs for three stations will be added to the international radio budget, plus C.I.R.B.A.L. expenses, while available income is shrinking. In your consultant services you will wish to emphasize to the station staffs the need for careful and economical use of scarce funds."

Department of the Secretariat to C.I.R B A.L., K. Dean Stephens, dated 30/05/83

"Please supply a detailed budget for the next fiscal year well before the end of July, indicating what funds remain from former contributions, and clearly separating the costs of construction, equipment and furnishings of the station and its associated institute from anticipated operational costs. As your plans for construction of the station mature, your Assembly and the committee appointed to supervise the station should supply to the World Centre a carefully estimated budget of construction costs. Such a budget will allow you to husband the scarce resources and will permit your anticipating some of the obstacles inherent in developing an educational institution on the altiplano of inland Bolivia."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Bolivia, dated 31/05/83

"As for funds, you will be happy to know that adequate funding should be available for your purchase of land, building and equipment although, as always, maximal economies must be sought. your capital budget estimate is within the resources available. The operating budget for the

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first year holds to averages of other Bahá'í stations; revised figures should be submitted before activation o+ the station takes place. Priming funds can now be made available if needed."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Panama, dated 16/11/83

"As soon as the National Spiritual Assembly has decided upon its actions, the necessary plans should be prepared for the Cultural Centre Complex, including the institute if possible, so that construction can be expedited when the necessary steps have been taken with the government authorities. Bahá'í architects may be called upon if necessary, for such plans. Budgets should be submitted in time to assure a prompt start on the physical aspects of the project, so that the procurement of all equipment and materials can proceed expeditiously. Earmarked funds are in hand for the full development of the Centre and its radio station."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Panama, dated 11/10/83

"The general principle is that where regular servicing is established, for example with Mr. Mahdi and Mr. Mohebbi, the expenses should be written into the annual budgets as predictable costs. As far as was known such an arrangement was not yet in operation in Peru but is still only in the preparatory phase. The Budget should show to whom the consultant travel funds would be paid; this was not shown in the budget sent on September 13 ... Unusual travel, even by persons named on the station budget, could be paid by C.I.R.B.L. Your travel expenses on behalf of C.I.R.B.A L., as well as those of . . . would . . . be paid from the C.I.R.B.A.L. budget."

Department of the Secretariat to C.I.R.B.A.L., F. Schiantarelli, dated 01/12/83

"An estimated budget item for training of radio personnel should be included. This would meet the cost of travel by specialists to Bolivia or cost of travel of radio personnel to attend training courses which may be held in another country." Office of Social and Economic Development to National Spiritual Assembly of Bolivia, dated 28/08/84

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BUDGET -- Donations 44

"Although the New Era Cultural Association is legally the proprietor of the radio station, it is felt that its expenses should normally be borne by the National Spiritual Assembly, since the functions of the Association can be broader than that of radio alone."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Peru, dated 06/11/84

"7. An estimated budget item for training of radio personnel should be included. This would meet the cost of travel by specialists to Bolivia or cost of travel of radio personnel to attend training courses which may be held in another country."

Office of Social and Economic Development to the National Spiritual Assembly of Bolivia, dated 28/08/84

"B. The allocation for occasional part-time personnel is rather high and it is suggested that you may wish to invite additional voluntary participation from the members of the community for your production and consultancy work."

"5. C.I.R.B.A.L. personnel travel expenses to Peru in fulfillment of their assigned functions will be met from C.I.R.B.A.L. resources. The station is free to pay travel expenses on a modest scale to consultants of its choice and needs, including C.I.R.B.A.L. personnel on special request."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Peru, dated 06/11/84

2. Donations, Letters of, Collaboration

"The Universal House of Justice has noted the letter from Mr. Stephens in which he reports the generous gift of J. used radio transmitter from a non-Bahá'í station in Denver, Colorado and asks about its disposition. We are asked to convey its views."

"Inasmuch as all Bahá'í radio stations operate in the public service, the House of Justice sees no objection to accepting the gift."

Department of the Secretariat to C.I.R.B.A.L., dated 17/01/82

"With respect to the contributions made or pledged by the Bahá'í community of ..., California, the House of Justice is

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grateful for the generosity of the Bahá'ís and particularly of ... however, the commitment is a fully voluntary one. and the House of Justice does not consider it appropriate to intervene in this matter."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Chile, dated 28/04/82

"In the same report you have indicated the Commission's rejection of the offer of free municipal land in Caracollo. For your information in this matter of not accepting gifts from non- Baha'is, there is no objection to accepting free plots of land from the government or civic authorities if such land is used for Bahá'í cemeteries or for such institutions as are charitable or humanitarian in nature, such as schools, medical facilities, homes for the orphan or aged. The radio station is an educational institution and a public servant, not solely for Bahá'ís but also for non-Baha'is, hence it is permissible for you to accept with gratitude land offered ... providing ... the land is of the right character and in the right place to meet the needs of the station complex."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Bolivia, dated 02/03/83

"In such matters as letters of donation, you are asked to request these from the National Spiritual Assembly of the country of equipment purchase, generally the United States. your experiences in negotiating--purchases, obtaining documents of 'donation' will allow you to expedite each such need. The sources of the funds for the purchases are of course, international, but this should make no difference to the donor, the National Assembly of the United States, the National Assembly of Canada, or other."

Department of the Secretariat to C.I.R.B.A.L., dated 25/05/83

3. Vehicles - Adequate Insurance and Careful Management

"Recognizing that the station and institute have need of a tough and long-lived vehicle . . and that extraordinary steps have been taken to secure the Toyota at minimal total cost ... Funds are being sent to your Assembly and to the National Spiritual Assembly of Japan, as requested, recognizing that it is important to complete the transaction while the special purchase and entry conditions remain."

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BUDGET -- Vehicles 46

"It is hoped that the station will derive many years of service from this vehicle, that this valuable piece of equipment will be safeguarded through adequate insurance and careful management, including protection against theft."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Peru, dated 21/02/84

"The insurance figure should be more specific and premiums should be given in detail. All buildings and equipment should be adequately insured and an all-risk insurance policy taken out. The jeep should be similarly comprehensively insured. If insurance coverage car, be obtained for hazards from natural causes, this would be advisable."

Office of Social and Economic Development to the National Spiritual Assembly of Bolivia, dated 28/08/84

"Although Peruvian law does not require insurance, and particularly second and third person liability insurance, which is a mandatory requirement for all autos and driers in some countries, it seems wise to insure for theft, accident and liability, or for overall coverage, bearing in mind the state of affairs in Puno and Cuzco districts and undertaking a proper survey of insurance carriers, their rates and reliability in meeting claims."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Peru, dated 23/08/89

"Not only are the users of the vehicles of the Faith under serious obligation to the Faith for care and discretion in all uses of these cars, which are not their property, but they are also responsible for mishaps, whether their own making or those of others. The drivers are often liable to be involved in legal action in accidents, particularly where there are injuries or deaths. Bahá'í employee-drivers may conceivably be required by your Assembly to pay some part of the insurance, perhaps the liability component, as a price for the privilege of vehicle use and as a protection for themselves against predator suits. And finally, it is a fair charge against the budget of the station to insure its autos; it is also a fair thing to require all station

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BUDGET -- Vehicles/Accounting 47

drivers to obey regulations for station auto use, against financial or other penalties for misuses established and clearly understood by each authorized driver."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Peru, dated 23/08/89

"If you have not already done so, it is hoped that the National Assembly will institute a program of control of all Bahá'í vehicles, and of insurance to protect its not inconsiderable capital investment in automobiles of various kinds."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Peru, dated 23/08/89

4. Accounting and Earmarked Funds

"The continuation of the Mapuche language programs is indeed essential to the maintenance of momentum in the teaching work now afoot. It is not known whether you have non-earmarked funds which will meet your needs for the radio station charges for the Mapuche programs; if so, you are of course free to use them. If you are limited by the terms of the funds given to you for the station construction ani for the institute, the estimated $2,040 can be made available."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Chile, dated 26/10/83

Also see section 7A.

5. Ministry of Education - Literacy by Air "This extract suggests that you should be in touch with Ecuador about this program, encouraging them actively to develop the relationship for repeat programs on literacy via radio. This is precisely one of the missions given to the radio stations, and whereas the response as indicated here was that they would only broadcast the programs, there is much more that perhaps the station should be doing, because literacy by radio usually involves printed matter and other associated materials. Our own concept of such literacy programs, when developed by Bahá'í radio stations, is to have much of the content concern itself with sociological issues, such as the unity of mankind and the equality of women with men, etc. In short, while people are learning to read and write, they should also learn the principles of the

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BUDGET -- Funds and Contributions 48

modern world. This need not necessarily mean using Bahá'í words, but only Bahá'í themes."

Audio-Visual Department to the International Bahá'í Audio- Visual Centre, dated 30/04/87

"In addition, it might be well to have the state seek to to draw some service fee from the Ministry of Education as was anticipated when, years ago, this same Ministry approached them to be the first station to broadcast programs for primary school classroom teaching. As we recall, this program was never carried through for want of funds. However, it could be rejuvenated as an idea to find out whether it is now possible . Here again, some small income might be gained from the Ministry of Education for the use of the station facilities, not to mention the services of the personnel involved. All this is consistent with our hope that Bahá'í stations will begin to have a respectable earning capacity within their cultural and educational status."

Audio-Visual Department to the International Bahá'í Audio- Visual Centre, dated 30/04/87

6. Management of Funds and Voluntary non-Bahá'í Contributions

"As for the management of these funds, it is preferred that you request funds from time to time as you may need them for your purposes of construction and later operation . You should inform the World Centre of the proper route of transmission of such monies from abroad, for their least troublesome and hazardous receipt. You may wish each transmittal to be handled through your account in the United States; if so, please provide exact instructions for transfer of funds to that account, giving the bank name, account number and any other information required. On a cable request from your assembly, transfer of funds can occur within forty-eight hours. "

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Bolivia, dated 09/02/83

"Your letter of 19 March 1985 enquiring if it would be permissible for Radio Bahá'í to receive voluntary contributions from non-Bahá'í listeners was received and we have been asked to convey to you the following comments."

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BUDGET -- Self-Support 49

"The Universal House of Justice sees no objection to accepting voluntary donations spontaneously contributed by non-Bahá'ís for your radio activities. In a letter written to a National Spiritual Assembly on the behalf of the House of Justice, the following advice was given."

" ... A point to bear in mind is that a Bahá'í radio station should strictly uphold a standard for its operations that will guard its programs against being confused in the public mind with the radio programs sponsored by other religious groups. The latter programs often involve fund-raising activities which, if associated with Bahá'í programs would eventually undermine the prestige of the Faith and expose its institutions to certain dangers."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador, dated 15/04/85

"The donations accepted from non-Bahá'ís must be used toward providing services or programs which are not a direct Bahá'í teaching."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador, dated 15/04/85

A. Non-Voluntary Programs

"Reference was made to "non-voluntary programs" with a value set upon such programs. It is assumed that this item refers to broadcasts undertaken on behalf of some other agency. and perhaps is a charge for time. If indeed the station is now undertaking to earn some portion of its expenses through service charges, this is excellent, but it would be helpful to know of your policies, plans and procedures. Possibly the lapsed UNICEF relationships could again be resumed, now that Caracollo is finalizing its contract."

Audio-Visual Department to the National Spiritual Assembly of Peru, dated 07/07/87

7. Self-support of Radio Stations, Strict Economy and Efficiency in Work

A. Additional Sources of Support to Reduce Burden to the Bahá'í International Fund

"It should be possible, on an increasing scale, to enlist the support of the Ecuadorian Bahá'í themselves in helping

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to finance their radio station and you will continue to strengthen your personnel resources through self-supporting pioneers who will expand your potentials for effective radio- broadcasting."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual

Assembly of Ecuador, dated 27/07/81

"In view of the comparatively large sums given in the budget estimates of Mr. Eyford, it may be well to comment that the out- of-pocket monies of the annual budget for Radio Bahá'í are augmented by a very considerable "invisible" budget, comprising support funds for the unsalaried pioneers, the time value of volunteer services of the local believers and also the value of visitor-workers such as engineer K. Dean Stephens, not to mention the work of the Radio Commission itself. All the volunteer services manifest that spirit which makes the station financially possible and financially viable. In the sense of a need to show a comparison between C.I.D.A. funds and station support funds, the "invisible" budget adds an important dimension, one which C.I.D.A. grantors may wish to have."

From an Ad Hoc Committee summary of information currently available at the World Centre on the situation and plans of Radio Bahá'í in Ecuador, dated 11/05/80

"The House of Justice anticipates receiving the detailed accounting for funds expended and for funds in hand. There is great need for your Assembly to husband its resources against the initiation of the long-awaited station in Labranza. Where funds are earmarked for a specific purpose they should be held against the realization of that purpose, and in your accounting you should clearly indicate any such donor earmarking."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Chile, dated 26/10/83

"Your Assembly should know that no earmarked capital funds for Peru have existed for some time. Overall worldwide operational funds available are not large, and must be shared with the growing number of stations which are in various stages of development, hence strict economy and efficiency in work is called for by each radio unit."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Peru, dated 21/02/84

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"1. It would be appreciated if you would segregate your accounting, as possible into appropriate sections: land, studio, transmitter, institute, miscellaneous (such as protective walls, landscaping, etc.) "

"2. You should show all sources of income, including payments from the World Centre by date and check number, plus other income such as the monies transferred from Mr. Mas'ud Khamsi."

"3. Each person who received money for special purchases should provide his own accounting to your Assembly."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Bolivia, dated 13/06/84

"The suggested adjustments have been guided not only by what is hoped can be accomplished through the radio station, but also by the critical state of the Bahá'í International Fund. If there is need for additional funds, the World Centre will be ready to receive your request and justification. The sacrificial efforts of those who are offering to work for the radio on a voluntary basis and those who are accepting a lower remuneration than that which might be expected from other employment are deeply appreciated, and such economies are considered as a positive contribution to the Funds of the Faith."

Office of Social and Economic Development to the National Spiritual Assembly of Panama, dated 01/04/86

"The Manager of the station and the National Assembly must use wisdom in meeting day-to-day requirements, and make necessary financial decisions accordingly. The suggested amounts in the categories can be altered as necessary with the approval of the National Assembly, provided serious consideration is given to the maintenance of the proportional relationship which the categories have to the budget as a whole."

Office of Social and Economic Development to the National Spiritual Assembly of Panama, dated 01/04/86

B. Special Letter on Additional Sources of Support

"The Bahá'í Word Centre has asked us to encourage the Bahá'í radio stations and their host National Spiritual Assemblies to search for additional sources of support that might

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reduce the burden to the Bahá'í International Fund. Our purpose in offering these observations is to clarify the responsibilities of various Bahá'í institutions in the support of a given station, and to stimulate thinking toward discovery of new possibilities for generating funds. The stations and their host National Spiritual Assemblies must move from a passive stance, where, in all cases save c,ne, total financial assistance from the Bahá'í International Fund is depended upon, to a proactive stance through which possibilities for additional support are explored.

I. Role of National Spiritual Assemblies

"First, it is hoped that the National Spiritual Assemblies which are blessed with the presence of a Bahá'í radio station will look upon the station as a national resource for proclamation,, teaching and deepening. Considerable responsibility, however, comes with the bounty of having a radio station in one's country. We hope that all National Spiritual Assemblies will continue to take an active role in the physical as well as the spiritual support of their stations. We would also hope that in the case where more than one nation enjoys the benefits of being within range of a Bahá'í radio station, that they too, will give funds to support the operation of the station. Places where Bahá'í radio can be received across national boundaries are: Sierra Leone and Ivory Coast who are within range of ELRB, parts of Bolivia which are served by Radio Bahá'í Peru, and the countries which will in the future be able to receive shortwave broadcasts from Ecuador."

II. Seeking support at the local level

"As Bahá'ís we want to conserve precious resources whenever possible. Our effort to conserve money from the Fund must be intensified, if we are to achieve all of the great tasks before us, such as the construction of the terraces on Mt. Carmel and the buildings on the Arc. Closer to home, there are many teaching projects to support. It is for these reasons, then, that we strongly encourage the Bahá'í to look for new ways in which Bahá'í radio can become partially self-supporting. Any money, no matter how small, any "in-kind" contribution results in a saving of money that would otherwise have to come from the Bahá'í Fund. The sources of additional funds are, perhaps, more abundant than people realize. Once the Bahá'í are attuned to the principle of stations being sustained by a number of different sources, large and small, opportunities become evident. Indeed, the process of seeking support, particularly at the grass roots level, can be an

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exhilarating one, for it obliges us to pay close attention to the needs and desires of those whom we serve."

III. Making direct appeals

"There is no reason why Local Spiritual Assemblies and individual Bahá'í who are listeners of a Bahá'í radio station should not feel free to contribute to the station to help to keep it on the air. Even individuals who are not Bahá'í should not be prevented from making contributions to Bahá'í radio. Listeners need to be made aware of the costs of bringing useful, stimulating and entertaining radio programs to them."

IV. Support from contractual agreements

"Another important source of financial support for a radio station can come from contractual agreements with local, national, and even international agencies whose interests fall within the scope of Bahá'í radio's mission. There have been many examples of this kind of activity and we feel strongly that National Spiritual Assemblies and their radio stations must continue to actively pursue these relationships. We are reminded of the arrangement between Radio Bahá'í Ecuador and the Ministry of Education of that country to present classes in mathematics in the "School of the Air". Another example is the possible Interactive Radio project to be sponsored by U.S.A.I.D. in Ecuador."

V. The charging of fees

"In the matter of charges, a nominal rate structure is not unfamiliar to most secular agencies. Either air time or labour can be charged for services to other agencies and institutions. The friends can also consider "in-kind" arrangements, in which actual money does not change hands. An example of this is in Liberia, where ELRB runs "ads" for the electric company, and receives power credits in return. Another example of this kind of relationship would be where an agency provides certain technical improvements to a station to meet the needs of a program or series, and which would benefit the entire radio station, and would be utilized even after the project had been completed. The Interactive Radio project proposes such a "fee". Some projects like "School of the Air" have themselves sought additional support, i.e. the Ministry of Education collected a nominal registration fee from the students who enrolled in the math course. While the funds collected from the students were by no means sufficient to support the project, the funds were a good supplement, which was passed on indirectly to the ratio station. In addition, there is the

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psychological effect of making the course more significant to the students through their payment of at least nominal fees. The statement, "Free has no value" has some basis in fact."

VI. Non-financial support from non-Bahá'í sources

"Non-Bahá'ís should be encouraged to help the station, at every opportunity. If they are allowed to contribute in some way toward the station, it helps them to identify with the station. They can provide the station with valuable information, too, such things as comments about programs, people who might be interested in learning more about the Bahá'í Faith, etc.. There have been several instances where people have become involved in helping Bahá'í radio stations, and have enrolled in the Faith shortly afterward."

VII. Fund raising and the law

"Before engaging in any direct appeals for contributions, however, we urge you to carefully investigate the laws of your own country, as they apply to a station of your stated category or description, i.e. as a cultural non-profit, charitable or other station, and what sorts of income are allowed. While most places will not prevent a radio station from making appeals for contributions, it may be that such activity will change the station's tax status. as non-profit Bahá'í radio stations enjoy tax advantages over their commercial cousins, it is wise for them to protect such tax-exempt status."

VIII. Grants-in-aid

"Another source of funds are grants from various institutions and private foundations. Grants differ from the contractual relationships cited earlier, although many institutions offer both to their recipients. A grant implies that the organization giving it does not receive any type of service or product in return, but only demands careful reporting of how the support was utilized with detailed accounting of money spent, and perhaps some publicity, but that is all. There are several different types of grants-in-aid: one of them is for "in-kind" assistance where equipment, technical expertise, or supplies of some type are given in place of money. Many grants require that the applicant furnish certain things before the grant is given. This "in-kind" matching could take the form of equipment, personnel, land, or facilities. The grantor usually wants assurance that the organization applying for the grant is substantial and responsible."

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IX. Assistance to obtain grants

"There are many sources of information about projects and grants that are available to public service institutions. We urge you to contact local libraries and experts in the field who may be able to help you. Don't overlook other public service organizations, especially the ones that appear to be successful in locating sources of support. Ask them how they did it, who they contacted, and for any suggestions or, how to formulate a proposal that will receive attention. Also, don't be discouraged if your first efforts do not meet with success. There is great competition for support, particularly from the private sector, as government funds become scarce. Learn from the unsuccessful proposals. Ask for critiques. Soon you will discover that you have mastered the fine art of locating sources that can supplement precious monies for the Fund."

X. Conclusion

"The comments that have been made are only suggestions to stimulate thinking about some ways in which additional support can be found. The most important ingredient is an attitude that a Bahá'í radio station is made up of many sources of support -- large and small, permanent and temporary. Is such activity worth the effort? There will be certain setbacks and frustrations as the search for new ways to sustain a station continues. Do not become discouraged. It takes time and effort to create a broad base of support, but as you progress you will feel an exhilaration which comes from the confidence that Bahá'í radio can actually be supported by the people it serves. The listeners, in turn, will gain a new sense of respect for their "Radio Baha'i"."

"We wish you great success, and we hope that you will share your experiences with all of us."

International Bahá'í Audio-Visual Centre to the National Spiritual Assemblies and Radio Stations of Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, Liberia, Panama, Peru and the United States, dated 07/09/89

8. Development Projects and Bahá'í Projects in Their Relations With all Non-Bahá'í Fund-Granting Agencies

"We are asked to transmit certain comments, for the. are fundamentally important to the conception of Bahá'í projects in their relations with all non-Bahá'í fund-granting agencies."

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"The programs in health, agriculture, home economics and traditional culture which are being supported by C.I.D.A., always formed part of the broadcasting plans made by Radio Baha'i

Ecuador. C.I.D.A.'s relationship with the project is as a fund- granting agency only, and an accounting will be made to them for monies provided. There is obviously an element of prestige in such recognition by the Canadian government but its contribution to this Bahá'í project should not receive prominence beyond its due."

"The House of Justice wishes the various development projects in their communications to represent the spirit of the Faith working in the world. While warmly and regularly acknowledging any assistance given by non-Bahá'í agencies, we must always regard our Bahá'í purposes as paramount and ensure they are never compromised."

Department of the Secretariat to C.I.R.B.A.L., dated 21/08/83

"Re the agreement between Radio Bahá'í and the Regional Department of Health in Puno. 'It is hoped that the comments of Mr. Schiantarelli will be given your thoughtful consideration so that this endeavor can be carried forward to the prestige of the Bahá'í community and the benefit of the peoples of Peru.'"

"The addition of this project to the other activities of Radio Baha'i, such as the literacy project with the Ministry of Education, the work at the Muhajir Teaching Institute and the continuing growth and development of the radio station will require a great deal of effort and attention. In order not to dissipate the energy and resources of the community, careful consideration should be given before taking on any further projects."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Peru, dated 01/04/85

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IV. Technical Matters
Introduction

"The technical problems of the stations need to be methodically faced and resolved. Mr. K. Dean Stephens will take a journey in the autumn to set afoot the most appropriate long-range solutions to these nettling problems which require knowledgeable maintenance personnel who also are willing to assume preventive procedures to forestall certain kinds of breakdowns. We must still tolerate our of funds, and the personnel must understand the inadequate nature of our financial resources when purchasing original or replacement equipment."

Audio-Visual Department to Mr. Donald Witzel, dated 02/09/87

1. Technical Personnel

"...Judging by the experiences in Otavalo and Puno, we should have a competent radio engineer on duty at an early date in the development of the station in order to assure good installation of the studio equipment as well as that of the transmitter, and thereafter to monitor and maintain and upgrade the equipment. Each new station will present a similar situation, and planning must now be done to forestall such difficulties as experienced in the earl days at Chucuito, such as the damage and setbacks which occurred .... The same problem will confront us in Bolivia unless Mohebbi will be able to serve ..."

Audio-Visual Department to K. Dean Stephens, dated 03/02/82

2. Role of Consultants

"You are a member of the staff of Radio Bahá'í in Otavalo and as such are under the authority of the National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador, and in Otavalo under the direction of the Radio Committee and the manager of the station. Such international consultant service as you may be asked to do by C.I.R.B.A.L. is with the permission of the National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador, at times when routine station duties permit your absence from regular station responsibilities."

Department of the Secretariat to Mr. Parviz Mahdi, dated 20/05/83

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TECHNICAL MATTERS -- Personnel/Consultant 58

"Such services by Mr. Mahdi necessarily require permission from those who are responsible for his work at Radio Bahá'í His role as consultant would seem to be practicable in view of the presence of a radio technician at Radio Baha'i; furthermore, Mr. Mahdi's challenging past experiences have suggested that he with Mr. Zatiollah Mohebti, could provide certain intermittent technical services to the radio network now in formation. Furthermore it is in the best interests of the Faith that Mr. Mahdi's skills be used at their highest level whenever possible."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador, dated 22/05/83

"Mr. Mahdi is a member of the staff of Radio Bahá'í and as such is your employee and thus under the authority of the National Spiritual Assembly, the Radio Committee and the manager ... Mr. Mahdi's role as an expert consultant electronics engineer working in collaboration with C.I.R.B.A.L. is an added responsibility which, it is hoped, he will be able to undertake at times when the station does not urgently require his ongoing maintenance or installation services. Travel costs for services offered to the stations in Peru, Bolivia and elsewhere must be supplied by C.I.R.B.A.L., or by the other stations themselves, and are not a part of your obligations."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador, dated 22/05/83

"The consultant service on managerial functions offered to the stations in Peru and Bolivia has doubtless been not only very valuable to the staff of both countries, but also reveals Mr. Quinteros' maturity in his responsibilities, as well as his important cooperation with C.I.R.B.A.L.."

"The report of station staff collaboration with the Regional Teaching Committee of the North gives high hope that the station's Bahá'í teaching record will soon equal its achievement of service to the people of the Otavalo area. Again Mr. Quinteros is to be commended for what appears to have been a key role in the teaching program development and execution."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador, dated 16/11/83

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"The need for a capable and trained engineer--technician for the radio station is very clear, and it is hoped that a person of capacity and experience may be found to meet our ongoing needs for maintenance, for improvement of the equipment, and for power supplies such as the generator and the wind-power unit. The spare parts issue will be handled, we presume, with C.I.R.B.A.L.'s assistance."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Peru, dated 19/03/84

"It is hoped that improvements in the technical aspects of routine broadcasting will take place as the staff becomes more experienced. The technician in Oruro should be one resource to be considered, even for possible regular work at the station, if his proficiencies are adequate. An intensive search should proceed for a maintenance engineer for the station, a person of authentic skill and training."

Department of the Secretariat to C.I.R.B.A.L., dated 04/04/84

"For other technical problems that cannot be solved b the radio station staff, Mr. Stephens has recommended the establishment of some kind of ongoing relationship with local radio experts to be called upon by the Bahá'ís for assistance as in the case of Engineer Cruz for Radio Bahá'í Ecuador. There will be some kind of consultants' fee required on a case by case basis, and such costs will have to be planned for in each station's operating budget."

Department of the Secretariat to C.I.R.B.A.L., dated 16/05/85

"Your letter of 2 January 1986, with its financial update on equipment purchases and the general financial picture of the station under construction, has been received. Your efforts to keep the World Centre informed of the current status of the various radio projects and also of the work of the C.I.R.B.A.L. Executive Committee are appreciated." "Regarding the request for additional funds, a check for US$ 11,000 is being sent for the following items $3,000 toward equipment purchases in Panama; $3,000 for the alternate energy system in Bolivia and $5,000 as a down payment for the 5KW transmitter for Bolivia. The full amount for the transmitter is not currently available. It is suggested that funds for the alternate energy system for Ecuador be deferred to the time when C.l.R.B.A.L. is relieved somewhat from the many pressing needs of stations under construction and when a resident engineer is in place

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in Ecuador to oversee the installation and follow-up on the solar power system."

Office of Social and Economic Development to Comunicaci�n y Radiodifusi�n Bahá'í para America Latina y el Caribe, C.I.R.B.A.L., dated 06/02/83

3. Construction and Design

"The requested sum of $6,000 is being sent to you to pay for this new building which is to become an essential feature of the overall plan to bring effective shortwave broadcasting into operation in Ecuador."

"The land use plan to be draw up for Lake Cuicocha should take into account the need to preserve, and even augment, the great natural beauty of this extraordinary site."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador, dated 16/01/83

"The revised drawing for a radio studio and transmitter building shows many improvements, including much increased light for the offices and of course twenty percent increase in space. It would be well to show the possibilities for later expansion of studio space, and give some suggestions regarding power, heating, water and other services so important to efficient work in parts of Latin America and elsewhere. As a basic model it seems workable, but perhaps the staff of Radio Bahá'í del Lago Titicaca should be consulted, if you have not already done so, on their experience with the type of building in which they daily work and live. The plan should, of course, immediately be transmitted to Chile for its possible modification of construction now imminent . . . "

Department of the Secretariat to C.I.R.B.A.L., dated 06/04/83

" . . .we are now asked by the Universal House of Justice to confirm the urgency of having the building plan redrafted for reasons of both efficiency and economy." "The recent letter from Mr. K. Dean Stephens to the Universal House of Justice regarding the design for a combined radio station and institute in Caracollo., postulated very well what is needed in redrafting a plan which will be within your resources, and which also should be far more functional overall than the existing design. . . .The cogency of these opinions, and of those expressed

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earlier by Mr. Schiantarelli, point again to the need for your Radio Committee to consult freely and regularly with Mr. Schiantarelli and Mr. Stephens on the programming and technical aspects of your work giving heed to their advice."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Bolivia, dated 17/07/83

"It is important to consider whether the service of a Bahá'í architect would be helpful in the design and construction work, both for the Centre and the station at .... More detailed drawings showing elevations will be very helpful and will give a better presentation of the Centre, of which the Guaymi Bahá'í should be proud. A Bahá'í architect could possibly be found who would assist you in this work."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Panama, dated 21/11/83

4. Equipment Purchasing

"However, the assistance and supervision of C.I.R.B.A.L. is encouraged in overseeing equipment purchases of the future."

Department of the Secretariat to K. Dean Stephens, dated 12/05/82

"Re your letter of 16 September to the Universal House of Justice: ... we are asked to convey it approval of the anticipated purchasing of 5KW components for the antenna system in Caracollo, Bolivia. Such planning is most praiseworthy, for indeed the increase in power is a part of the three-year program of development which will add greatly to station effectiveness in a later phase of broadcasting."

"Under separate cover we are forwarding the additional $5,000 for equipment and materials for Bolivia,... you to account for this equipment with the National Spiritual Assembly of Bolivia. You should also inform the engineers of these purchases and, if necessary, any special installation procedures required."

Department of the Secretariat to C.I.R.B.A.L., dated 09/10/83

"Your point 1, the need to establish a small production studio, should be further pursued. As you may know, earmarked funds exist to activate this project and these

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should be called upon as soon as a place to use as a studio has been located and secured. A budget for this pre-station work should be prepared and submitted to the World Centre. The recording equipment will of course be installed later in the station and be incorporated into regular operations."

Office of Social and Economic Development to C.I.R.B.A.L., F. Schiantarelli, dated 10/04/84

"The funds for purchase of equipment are approved. You have already indicated that Mr. K. Dean Stephens will guide your selection of equipment to assure compatibilities when you have been able to construct a radio station nearby, incorporating these items into the studio array. The House of Justice is delighted with your progress toward acquisition of land for the transmitter and other facilities, and urges your intensive concern with acquiring at the earliest date a favorable medium wave frequency allocation for coverage of the Guaymi area."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Panama, dated 08/05/84

"Re your letter of 21 November 1984 in respect of the difficulties with the transmitter at the radio station in Peru. (1) The use of second-hand equipment must be considered as part of an overall critical appraisal, weighing between initial acquisition cost and potential problems that might arise, particularly where relatively unskilled technical staff are involved in a stations."

Office of Social and Economic Development to C.I.R.B.A.L., dated 15/01/85

"Although purchasing second-hand equipment may present an immediate savings, it is recommended that a very careful study should be made in respect of serviceability of equipment and availability of spare parts in Liberia. As you will have observed, Liberia is not favourably situated commercially and has to import all its hardware from foreign countries, especially the United States. To maintain

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adequate supplies of spare parts and to be able to meet eventualities may be a difficult task for such a community. Every effort should be made to lighten their burden."

Office of Social and Economic Development to C.I.R.B.A.L., dated 18/01/85

"In regard to the concept of establishing a Baha'i-run clearinghouse of spare parts in Latin America, the House of Justice would prefer to have this function undertaken by the individual radio stations as a part of their regular operating functions. It is important that the stations should develop more self-reliance and reduce their dependence upon C.I.R.B.A.L., whose role in this area of its service should be to expedite procurement of equipment and to respond to major emergencies."

Department of the Secretariat to C.I.R.B.A.L., dated 16/05/85

"(2) Availability of services and spare parts must be ascertained in the country where the equipment will be used. The Broadcast Division may identify a key agency or distributor that carries all spares in the U.S. or in the country where the equipment is installed, for direct contact by the station engineer; and also the Division may establish an agreed procedure for invoking the aid of C.I.R.B.A.L. when necessary."

Office of Social and Economic Development to C.I.R.B.A.L., dated 15/01/85

"(3) A system could be developed whereby some normally short-lived (fast-moving) spare parts are routinely acquired and stored, and another for reordering of less frequently needed spare parts, to be periodically submitted to the National Assembly or the Radio Committee for approval and prompt purchase. The main concern at the moment should be towards keeping all radio stations on the air in accordance with their established schedule."

Office of Social and Economic Development to C.I.R.B.A.L., dated 15/01/85

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5. Power Sources

"Much obviously remains to be done, including the development of power resources from wind and sun, aimed at achieving power independence and economy."

Department of the Secretariat to C.I.R.B.A.L., dated 04/04/84

"The House of Justice is enthusiastic about the work being done through Chucuito complex, but wished to have a report on the progress toward wind energy supplementation of power needs."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Peru, dated 21/02/84

"We find the whole concept of solar power for emergency uses very interesting and encouraging. However, it is difficult to make a decision of the magnitude envisioned at this time, especially as the whole concept is still in the experimental stage and the required additional outlay of financial resources is not yet justifiable. We shall, however, be interested to consider a single unit, perhaps in Panama where the concept can be included at the outset in planning and equipping the studio and transmitter."

Office of Social and Economic Development to C.I.R.B.A.L., dated 18/01/85

"It is suggested the up-grading of the Bolivian station be tentatively projected for 1986, perhaps to coincide with the second anniversary of the launching of the station. Reaching and penetrating La Paz should not be the prime consideration but rather expanded services to the Quechua and Aymara population."

Office of Social and Economic Development to C.I.R.B.A.L., dated 18/01/85

"Although you mention that it does not seem feasible to obtain electricity, the projections for having access to electricity in the future should be investigated, perhaps

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for the next five to ten years. This is an important factor in deciding whether or not to invest in a self-sufficient power plant for the radio station."

Office of Social and Economic Development to C.I.R.B.A.L., dated 18/01/85

"The issue of a new motor for the generator must be taken as part of the overall consideration of power sources for the radio station. It would be most helpful if would present to the World Centre a review of energy sources used at the radio station: the generator, the windpower unit and the solar power system. This should include a brief outline of how the daily operating power and the reserve/emergency systems are currently functioning, and a projection for the future, with cost estimates for different alternatives. Comparable costs for diesel and petrol motors of adequate capacity together with specifications should be supplied to the World Centre."

Office of Social and Economic Development to the National Spiritual Assembly of Peru, dated 26/12/85

6. Shortwave Engineering

"The idea of world coverage with shortwave stations in three sites is a good one, and we will keep it in mind. It is suggested that we begin by upgrading Cuicocha, and linking it with Panama, possibly eventually increasing power to cover the Americas."

Audio-Visual Department to K. Dean Stephens, dated 03/09/87

7. Safety

"The serious accident to a laborer provides a clear warning of the care which must be exercised when inexperienced persons are employed at the station, and also shows the need for adequate insurance provisions for those undertaking hazardous tasks."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador, dated 17/11/82

"Re your letter dated 29 March 1985 regarding the hazards of PCB present in certain radio equipment ... It is agreed that this potential problem should be further investigated and attended to at the various Bahá'í radio stations. The

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guidance of C.I.R.B.A.L. in organizing information on this issue, including estimated costs, and outlining steps to be taken by the radio stations is most welcome. In this way the station will be able to set up a procedure and time schedule for such a project and each station can then budget the costs under maintenance of equipment."

"... since this issue of PCB in radio equipment has come to your attention, appropriate measures are being taken to ensure that the equipment for the stations in Liberia and Panama will be free from this hazard."

Office of Social and Economic Development to C.I.R.B.A.L., dated 16/05/85

"While pointing out that awareness for safety precautions is most important, it is hoped that, as part of the process of assisting the individual Bahá'í radio stations to become self-reliant in their functioning, they will be encouraged to, find their own ways of getting assistance from the local community, (e.g. from the local Red Cross or government health agencies). This is not only important for the independence of the stations but also as a means of strengthening community ties."

Office of Social and Economic Development to C.I.R.B.A.L., dated 16/05/85

"... please emphasize to everyone there that the open circuit voltage from the solar panels is lethal: unconnected to the battery bank, it can soar to over 200 VDC at 2-3 amps. Similarly, the combined battery potential may be lethal, at 120-130 VDC available at over 20 amps. We must get everyone in a mode to respect the alternate energy system, even though it contains elements people are used to handling."

C.I.R.B.A.L. Broadcasting Division, Engineering to an individual believer in Monrovia, Liberia, dated 02/04/86

8. Survey of FM listenership (Audience)

"The FM alternative should be explored with the help of your own engineer and C.I.R.B.A.L.. A survey of FM listenership in Temuco area would be helpful in strengthening your application, should you find that there are abundant FM receivers in the homes of the prospective audience. In any

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TECHNICAL MATTERS -- Commercial Radio 67

event, the report of your study commission will be welcomed by the House of Justice."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of Chile, dated 24/10/83

9. Commercial Radio Stations

"Bahá'ís are free, of course, to earn their livelihood in ways which they choose, including operating such businesses as commercial radio stations."

"There is no reason in principle why you should not own and operate a station as you now are considering. What you must confront directly are the sources of income of a commercial station, for radio advertising as the main source of income may present difficult decisions where principal advertisers are selling alcohol or tobacco, or where partisan political campaigns are waged by radio. As an instrument of education, culture and public service, radio can be of the greatest value, and could be a source of great gratification to you, if you are satisfied that it can be financially viable."

"In making your primarily business choice of owning and running a radio station, the question of a numerous Bahá'í audience does not arise. As for a commercial and nominally non-Bahá'í stations meeting a Bahá'í goal, it would not do so. If ultimately the station might revert to the Faith at that time it might qualify as the fulfillment of a goal."

"Regarding your question of the National Spiritual Assembly's operating a commercial radio station, in these times it seems unwise to undertake such an enterprise."

Department of the Secretariat to an individual believer, dated 19/04/83

[Indexed by dkt/11/90].

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